Nanoparticle Silver Released into Water from Commercially Available Sock Fabrics

Civil and Environmental Engineering, Arizona State University, Box 5306, Tempe, Arizona 85287-5306, USA.
Environmental Science and Technology (Impact Factor: 5.33). 07/2008; 42(11):4133-9. DOI: 10.1021/es801501j
Source: PubMed


Manufacturers of clothing articles employ nanosilver (n-Ag) as an antimicrobial agent, but the environmental impacts of n-Ag release from commercial products are unknown. The quantity and form of the nanomaterials released from consumer products should be determined to assess the environmental risks of nanotechnology. This paper investigates silver released from commercial clothing (socks) into water, and its fate in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Six types of socks contained up to a maximum of 1360 microg-Ag/g-sock and leached as much as 650 microg of silver in 500 mL of distilled water. Microscopy conducted on sock material and wash water revealed the presence of silver particles from 10 to 500 nm in diameter. Physical separation and ion selective electrode (ISE) analyses suggest that both colloidal and ionic silver leach from the socks. Variable leaching rates among sock types suggests that the sock manufacturing process may control the release of silver. The adsorption of the leached silver to WWTP biomass was used to develop a model which predicts that a typical wastewater treatment facility could treat a high concentration of influent silver. However, the high silver concentration may limitthe disposal of the biosolids as agricultural fertilizer.

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Available from: Paul Westerhoff, Mar 28, 2014
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    • "For example, in the textile industry, silver nanoparticles (nAg) are incorporated into hospital clothes in order to prevent pathogenic bacterial infection such as Staphylococcus aureus infection (Dur an et al., 2007), but are also used in clothes such as socks to avoid unpleasant odours caused by microorganisms (Perera et al., 2013). Benn and Westerhoff (2008) showed that these types of socks can release nAg and ionic silver in the washing water. Farkas et al. (2011) studied the amount of silver in the effluent from a commercial silver nanowashing machine and they measured an average release of 11 mg L À1 of silver partly in the nanoparticulate form. "
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    ABSTRACT: Silver nanoparticles (nAg) are widely used in consumer products and the risk associated with their potential release into freshwater ecosystems needs to be addressed using environmentally realistic exposure concentrations. Here, the effects of low concentrations (0.5-5 μg L(-1)) of two different sized nAg (10 and 60 nm) and a silver nitrate positive control were evaluated in Gammarus roeseli following exposure for 72 h. Cellular, individual and functional endpoints were independently studied and the most striking results were reported for functional endpoints. Indeed, without a change in their feeding activity, the gammarids produced significantly fewer fine particles of organic matter when exposed to nAg, even at 0.5 μg L(-1) of 10 nm nAg. These functional endpoints seem to be efficient markers for detecting the early effects of nAg on G. roeseli.
    Environmental Pollution 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2015.10.036 · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    • "socks and t-shirts) can release a significant amount of AgNP into the environment via the water from washing machines (up to 650 mg/500 mL water). This provides a pathway whereby AgNP can reach the external environment, via waste-water treatment plants and ultimately entry into sewage sludge/biosolids (Benn and Westerhoff 2008). Other authors have also highlighted the potential for nanoparticles to enter the environment from different consumer products (Benn et al. 2010; Farkas et al. 2011). "

    Journal of Nanoparticle Research 11/2015; 17(11). DOI:10.1007/s11051-015-3246-4 · 2.18 Impact Factor
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    • "As marvelous development in science and technology, evergrown demanding use of silver in industrial activities has resulted in increasing silver content of ecological samples and biological organisms [1] [2] [3]. The toxicity of silver has gradually been realized and its corresponding potential to hamper human health has drawn focused attention in recent years. "
    Q Y Liu · Liu · F Yuan · H Zhuang · C Wang · D Shi · Y K Xu · X Jiang ·
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    ABSTRACT: A new area of simple and effective wurtzite gallium nitride (GaN) electrodes for silver (I) detection using anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) has been demonstrated. GaN electrode has exhibited obvious advantages over mercury (Hg) in silver ion evolution for its nontoxicity and wide range of anodic potential. ASV tests confirm GaN electrodes exhibit desirable stability and very sensitive response to Ag(I) in aque-ous solution. Comparing with GaN nanostructures, bulky GaN thin film shows superior electrochemical sensitivity with Ag(I) detection limit as low as 10 ppb. However, modified GaN nanostructure electrodes with better conductivity are supposed to have more promising applications in trace silver ion detection.
    Applied Surface Science 11/2015; 356:1058-1063. DOI:10.1016/j.apsusc.2015.08.167 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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