Recycling wastewater after hemodialysis: an environmental analysis for alternative water sources in arid regions.
ABSTRACT Water is a vital aspect of hemodialysis. During the procedure, large volumes of water are used to prepare dialysate and clean and reprocess machines. This report evaluates the technical and economic feasibility of recycling hemodialysis wastewater for irrigation uses, such as watering gardens and landscape plantings. Water characteristics, possible recycling methods, and production costs of treated water are discussed in terms of the quality of the generated wastewater. A cost-benefit analysis is also performed through comparison of intended cost with that of seawater desalination, which is widely used in irrigation.