The AmpliChip CYP450 test: cytochrome P450 2D6 genotype assessment and phenotype prediction.
ABSTRACT Polymorphisms of the cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) gene affecting enzyme activity are involved in interindividual variability in drug efficiency/toxicity. Four phenotypic groups are found in the general population: ultra rapid (UM), extensive (EM), intermediate (IM) and poor (PM) metabolizers. The AmpliChip CYP450 test is the first genotyping array allowing simultaneous analysis of 33 CYP2D6 alleles. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of this test in CYP2D6 phenotype prediction. We first verified the AmpliChip CYP450 test genotyping accuracy for five CYP2D6 alleles routinely analysed in our laboratory (alleles 3,4,5,6, x N; n=100). Results confirmed those obtained by real-time PCR. Major improvements using the array are the detection of CYP2D6 intermediate alleles and identification of the duplicated alleles. CYP2D6 phenotype was determined by assessing urinary elimination of dextromethorphan and its metabolite dextrorphan and compared to the array prediction (n=165). Although a low sensitivity of UM prediction by genotyping was observed, phenotype prediction was optimal for PM and satisfying for EM and IM.
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ABSTRACT: The cytochrome P450 mixed function oxidase enzymes play a major role in the metabolism of important endogenous substrates as well as in the biotransformation of xenobiotics. The liver P450 system is the most active in metabolism of exogenous substrates. This review briefly describes the liver P450 (CYP) mixed function oxidase system with respect to its enzymatic components and functions. Electron transfer by the NADPH-P450 oxidoreductase is required for reduction of the heme of P450, necessary for binding of molecular oxygen. Binding of substrates to P450 produce substrate binding spectra. The P450 catalytic cycle is complex and rate-limiting steps are not clear. Many types of chemical reactions can be catalyzed by P450 enzymes, making this family among the most diverse catalysts known. There are multiple forms of P450s arranged into families based on structural homology. The major drug metabolizing CYPs are discussed with respect to typical substrates, inducers and inhibitors and their polymorphic forms. The composition of CYPs in humans varies considerably among individuals because of sex and age differences, the influence of diet, liver disease, presence of potential inducers and/or inhibitors. Because of such factors and CYP polymorphisms, and overlapping drug specificity, there is a large variability in the content and composition of P450 enzymes among individuals. This can result in large variations in drug metabolism by humans and often can contribute to drug-drug interactions and adverse drug reactions. Because of many of the above factors, especially CYP polymorphisms, there has been much interest in personalized medicine especially with respect to which CYPs and which of their polymorphic forms are present in order to attempt to determine what drug therapy and what dosage would reflect the best therapeutic strategy in treating individual patients. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.11/2014; 4C:60-73. DOI:10.1016/j.redox.2014.11.008
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ABSTRACT: Introduction: The frequency of CYP2D6 alleles, related to either a lack of or increased enzymatic activity, which may lead to poor metabolism (PM) or ultrarapid metabolism (UM), can vary across ethnic groups and hence across geographic regions. Areas covered: Worldwide original research papers on CYP2D6 allelic frequencies, metabolic phenotype frequencies measured with a probe drug, and/or genotype frequencies that studied > 50 healthy volunteers, were included in analyses to describe the distributions of alleles, phenotypes predicted from genotypes (predicted poor metabolizers [gPMs], predicted ultrarapid metabolizers [gUMs]) and metabolic phenotypes (mPMs, mUMs) across ethnic groups and geographic regions. The analysis included 44,572 individuals studied in 172 original research papers. Expert opinion: As of today, Africa and Asia are under-represented in this area relative to the total number of their inhabitants, so that further studies in these regions are warranted. The CYP2D6*4 allele frequency was higher in Caucasians, CYP2D6*10 in East Asians, CYP2D6*41 and duplication/multiplication of active alleles in Middle Easterns, CYP2D6*17 in Black Africans and CYP2D6*29 in African Americans, than in other ethnic groups. Overall, gPMs and mPMs are more frequent among Caucasians, and gUMs among Middle Easterns and Ethiopians. However, mUMs could not be evaluated because only two studies were found presenting this information. Further studies including mUMs are thus warranted. There is a correspondence between gPMs and mPMs, but the few studies of mUMs meant that their relationship with gUMs could not be demonstrated. Finally, evolutionary aspects of the CYP2D6 allele distribution appear to support the Great Human Expansion model.Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology 11/2014; 10(11):1569-83. DOI:10.1517/17425255.2014.964204 · 2.93 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Individualization of pharmacotherapy is essential in order to optimize efficacy and minimize toxicity, especially for compounds with narrow therapeutic index. Cytochrome P450 phenotyping has been a valuable research tool and a way of assessing the genetic basis of metabolic capacity. Technique depends on estimating metabolic capacity based on conclusions drawn from another probe drug. Phenotyping allows estimation of the total influence of drug interactions, genetic polymorphisms, hepatic diseases and other factors altering pharmacokinetics. This requires the use of selective substrates for specific cytochrome enzymes. Recently some phenotyping methods are becoming widely used especially for the in vivo evaluation of multiple cytochrome enzymes by using probe cocktails.Anadolu Psikiyatri Dergisi 01/2014; 15(4). DOI:10.5455/apd.42867 · 0.20 Impact Factor