The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of platelet-rich plasma on the proliferation and differentiation of rat bone-marrow cells and to determine an optimal platelet concentration in plasma for osseous tissue engineering. Rat bone-marrow cells embedded in different concentrations of platelet-rich plasma gel were cultured for six days. Their potential for proliferation and osteogenic differentiation was analysed. Using a rat limb-lengthening model, the cultured rat bone-marrow cells with platelet-rich plasma of variable concentrations were transplanted into the distraction gap and the quality of the regenerate bone was evaluated radiologically. Cellular proliferation was enhanced in all the platelet-rich plasma groups in a dose-dependent manner. Although no significant differences in the production and mRNA expression of alkaline phosphatase were detected among these groups, mature bone regenerates were more prevalent in the group with the highest concentration of platelets. Our results indicate that a high platelet concentration in the platelet-rich plasma in combination with osteoblastic cells could accelerate the formation of new bone during limb-lengthening procedures.
"It has also been shown that proliferation of rat bone marrow cells incorporated within a platelet gel can be enhanced in a dose dependent manner. This suggests that a high platelet concentration in combination with osteoblastic cells within the platelet gel could accelerate the formation of new bone, in vivo . Clinically, the use of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in a platelet gel has potential for periodontal applications by reducing bone defect depth, probing depth, bleeding (upon probing), and tooth mobility . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Human bone is a tissue with a fairly remarkable inherent capacity for regeneration; however, this regenerative capacity has its limitations, and defects larger than a critical size lack the ability to spontaneously heal. As such, the development and clinical translation of effective bone regeneration modalities are paramount. One regenerative medicine approach that is beginning to gain momentum in the clinical setting is the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP). PRP therapy is essentially a method for concentrating platelets and their intrinsic growth factors to stimulate and accelerate a healing response. While PRP has shown some efficacy in both in vitro and in vivo scenarios, to date its use and delivery have not been optimized for bone regeneration. Issues remain with the effective delivery of the platelet-derived growth factors to a localized site of injury, the activation and temporal release of the growth factors, and the rate of growth factor clearance. This review will briefly describe the physiological principles behind PRP use and then discuss how engineering its method of delivery may ultimately impact its ability to successfully translate to widespread clinical use.
BioMed Research International 06/2014; 2014. DOI:10.1155/2014/392398 · 3.17 Impact Factor
"It was also recently implied to have antimicrobial properties which also contribute to tissue repair and regeneration.62 It has been demonstrated that the administration of PRP in combination with bone marrow cells during the consolidation phase of distraction osteogenesis enhances the bone healing process.63–67 PRP can also be an effective scaffold to induce osteogenesis. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gradual bone lengthening using distraction osteogenesis principles is the gold standard for the treatment of hypoplastic facial bones. However, the long treatment time is a major disadvantage of the lengthening procedures. The aim of this study is to review the current literature and summarize the cellular and molecular events occurring during membranous craniofacial distraction osteogenesis. Mechanical stimulation by distraction induces biological responses of skeletal regeneration that is accomplished by a cascade of biological processes that may include differentiation of pluripotential tissue, angiogenesis, osteogenesis, mineralization, and remodeling. There are complex interactions between bone-forming osteoblasts and other cells present within the bone microenvironment, particularly vascular endothelial cells that may be pivotal members of a complex interactive communication network in bone. Studies have implicated number of cytokines that are intimately involved in the regulation of bone synthesis and turnover. The gene regulation of numerous cytokines (transforming growth factor-β, bone morphogenetic proteins, insulin-like growth factor-1, and fibroblast growth factor-2) and extracellular matrix proteins (osteonectin, osteopontin) during distraction osteogenesis has been best characterized and discussed. Understanding the biomolecular mechanisms that mediate membranous distraction osteogenesis may guide the development of targeted strategies designed to improve distraction osteogenesis and accelerate bone regeneration that may lead to shorten the treatment duration.
"Another issue that is not even mentioned in clinical reports is whether there is a correlation between the platelet concentration or the PRP volume applied per injured area or volume. Studies have already demonstrated that low platelet concentration is inefficient and that high concentrations have an inhibitory effect on cell growth, but results are still contradictory [34-36]. Although still not deeply characterized, the leukocyte content was also shown to be an important factor, increasing inflammation and reducing tissue regeneration in tendinopathies . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction
Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is nowadays widely applied in different clinical scenarios, such as orthopedics, ophthalmology and healing therapies, as a growth factor pool for improving tissue regeneration. Studies into its clinical efficiency are not conclusive and one of the main reasons for this is that different PRP preparations are used, eliciting different responses that cannot be compared. Platelet quantification and the growth factor content definition must be defined in order to understand molecular mechanisms behind PRP regenerative strength. Standardization of PRP preparations is thus urgently needed.
PRP was prepared by centrifugation varying the relative centrifugal force, temperature, and time. Having quantified platelet recovery and yield, the two-step procedure that rendered the highest output was chosen and further analyzed. Cytokine content was determined in different fractions obtained throughout the whole centrifugation procedure.
Our method showed reproducibility when applied to different blood donors. We recovered 46.9 to 69.5% of total initial platelets and the procedure resulted in a 5.4-fold to 7.3-fold increase in platelet concentration (1.4 × 106 to 1.9 × 106 platelets/μl). Platelets were highly purified, because only <0.3% from the initial red blood cells and leukocytes was present in the final PRP preparation. We also quantified growth factors, cytokines and chemokines secreted by the concentrated platelets after activation with calcium and calcium/thrombin. High concentrations of platelet-derived growth factor, endothelial growth factor and transforming growth factor (TGF) were secreted, together with the anti-inflammatory and proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-4, IL-8, IL-13, IL-17, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-α. No cytokines were secreted before platelet activation. TGF-β3 and IFNγ were not detected in any studied fraction. Clots obtained after platelet coagulation retained a high concentration of several growth factors, including platelet-derived growth factor and TGF.
Our study resulted in a consistent PRP preparation method that yielded a cytokine and growth factor pool from different donors with high reproducibility. These findings support the use of PRP in therapies aiming for tissue regeneration, and its content characterization will allow us to understand and improve the clinical outcomes.
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