Cytokine-Induced β-Cell Death Is Independent of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signaling
ABSTRACT Cytokines contribute to beta-cell destruction in type 1 diabetes. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated apoptosis has been proposed as a mechanism for beta-cell death. We tested whether ER stress was necessary for cytokine-induced beta-cell death and also whether ER stress gene activation was present in beta-cells of the NOD mouse model of type 1 diabetes.
INS-1 beta-cells or rat islets were treated with the chemical chaperone phenyl butyric acid (PBA) and exposed or not to interleukin (IL)-1beta and gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma). Small interfering RNA (siRNA) was used to silence C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression in INS-1 beta-cells. Additionally, the role of ER stress in lipid-induced cell death was assessed.
Cytokines and palmitate triggered ER stress in beta-cells as evidenced by increased phosphorylation of PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), eukaryotic initiation factor (EIF)2alpha, and Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) and increased expression of activating transcription factor (ATF)4 and CHOP. PBA treatment attenuated ER stress, but JNK phosphorylation was reduced only in response to palmitate, not in response to cytokines. PBA had no effect on cytokine-induced cell death but was associated with protection against palmitate-induced cell death. Similarly, siRNA-mediated reduction in CHOP expression protected against palmitate- but not against cytokine-induced cell death. In NOD islets, mRNA levels of several ER stress genes were reduced (ATF4, BiP [binding protein], GRP94 [glucose regulated protein 94], p58, and XBP-1 [X-box binding protein 1] splicing) or unchanged (CHOP and Edem1 [ER degradation enhancer, mannosidase alpha-like 1]).
While both cytokines and palmitate can induce ER stress, our results suggest that, in contrast to lipoapoptosis, the PERK-ATF4-CHOP ER stress-signaling pathway is not necessary for cytokine-induced beta-cell death.
SourceAvailable from: PubMed Central[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Elevation of the dietary saturated fatty acid palmitate contributes to the reduction of functional beta cell mass in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. The diabetogenic effect of palmitate is achieved by increasing beta cell death through induction of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers including activating transcription factor 3 (Atf3) and CAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein-10 (Chop). In this study, we investigated whether treatment of beta cells with the MS-275, a HDAC1 and HDAC3 activity inhibitor which prevents beta cell death elicited by cytokines, is beneficial for combating beta cell dysfunction caused by palmitate. We show that culture of isolated human islets and MIN6 cells with MS-275 reduced apoptosis evoked by palmitate. The protective effect of MS-275 was associated with the attenuation of the expression of Atf3 and Chop. Silencing of HDAC3, but not of HDAC1, mimicked the effects of MS-275 on the expression of the two ER stress markers and apoptosis. These data point to HDAC3 as a potential drug target for preserving beta cells against lipotoxicity in diabetes.Journal of Diabetes Research 12/2014; 2014:195739. DOI:10.1155/2014/195739 · 3.54 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is profoundly involved in dysfunction of β-cells under high fat diet (HFD) and hyperglycemia. Our recent study in mice showed that γ-oryzanol, a unique component of brown rice, acts as a chemical chaperone in the hypothalamus and improves feeding behavior and diet-induced dysmetabolism. However, the entire mechanism whereby γ-oryzanol improves glucose metabolism throughout the body still remains unclear. In this context, we tested whether γ-oryzanol reduces ER stress and improves function and survival of pancreatic β-cells using murine β-cell line MIN6. In MIN6 cells with augmented ER stress by tunicamycin, γ-oryzanol decreased exaggerated expression of ER stress-related genes and phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α, resulting in restoration of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and prevention of apoptosis. In islets from HFD-fed diabetic mice, oral administration of γ-oryzanol improved GSIS on following reduction of exaggerated ER stress and apoptosis. Furthermore, we examined the impact of γ-oryzanol on low-dose streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, where exaggerated ER stress and resultant apoptosis in β-cells were observed. Also in this model, γ-oryzanol attenuated mRNA level of genes involved in ER stress and apoptotic signaling in islets, leading to amelioration of glucose dysmetabolism. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that γ-oryzanol directly ameliorates ER stress-induced β-cell dysfunction and subsequent apoptosis, highlighting usefulness of γ-oryzanol for the treatment of diabetes mellitus.Endocrinology 01/2015; DOI:10.1210/en.2014-1748 · 4.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) results from autoimmune destruction of islet β-cells, but the underlying mechanisms that contribute to this process are incompletely understood, especially the role of lipid signals generated by β-cells. Proinflammatory cytokines induce ER stress in β-cells and we previously found that the Ca(2+)-independent phospholipase A2β (iPLA2β) participates in ER stress-induced β-cell apoptosis. In view of reports of elevated iPLA2β in T1D, we examined whether iPLA2β participates in cytokine-mediated islet β-cell apoptosis. We find that the proinflammatory cytokine combination IL-1β+IFNγ, induces (a) ER stress, mSREBP-1, and iPLA2β, (b) lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) generation, (c) neutral sphingomyelinase-2 (NSMase2), (d) ceramide accumulation, (e) membrane decompensation, (f) caspase-3 activation, and (g) β-cell apoptosis. The presence of a sterol regulatory element in the iPLA2β gene raises the possibility that activation of SREBP-1 following proinflammatory cytokine exposure contributes to iPLA2β induction. The IL-1β+IFNγ-induced outcomes (b-g) are all inhibited by iPLA2β inactivation, suggesting that iPLA2β-derived lipid signals contribute to consequential islet β-cell death. Consistent with this possibility, ER stress and β-cell apoptosis induced by proinflammatory cytokines are exacerbated in islets from RIP-iPLA2β-Tg mice and blunted in islets from iPLA2β-KO mice. These observations suggest that iPLA2β-mediated events participate in amplifying β-cell apoptosis due to proinflammatory cytokines and also that iPLA2β activation may have a reciprocal impact on ER stress development. They raise the possibility that iPLA2β inhibition, leading to ameliorations in ER stress, apoptosis, and immune responses resulting from LPC-stimulated immune cell chemotaxis, may be beneficial in preserving β-cell mass and delaying/preventing T1D evolution.Endocrinology 07/2014; 155(9):en20132134. DOI:10.1210/en.2013-2134 · 4.64 Impact Factor