Article

A Common Nonsynonymous Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the SLC30A8 Gene Determines ZnT8 Autoantibody Specificity in Type 1 Diabetes

Barbara Davis Center for Childhood Diabetes, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora, Colorado, USA.
Diabetes (Impact Factor: 8.47). 07/2008; 57(10):2693-7. DOI: 10.2337/db08-0522
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Zinc transporter eight (SLC30A8) is a major target of autoimmunity in human type 1A diabetes and is implicated in type 2 diabetes in genome-wide association studies. The type 2 diabetes nonsynonymous single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) affecting aa(325) lies within the region of highest ZnT8 autoantibody (ZnT8A) binding, prompting an investigation of its relationship to type 1 diabetes.
ZnT8A radioimmunoprecipitation assays were performed in 421 new-onset type 1 diabetic Caucasians using COOH-terminal constructs incorporating the known human aa(325) variants (Trp, Arg, and Gln). Genotypes were determined by PCR-based SNP analysis. RESULTS-Sera from 224 subjects (53%) were reactive to Arg(325) probes, from 185 (44%) to Trp(325)probes, and from 142 (34%) to Gln(325)probes. Sixty subjects reacted only with Arg(325) constructs, 31 with Trp(325) only, and 1 with Gln(325) only. The restriction to either Arg(325) or Trp(325) corresponded with inheritance of the respective C- or T-alleles. A strong gene dosage effect was also evident because both Arg- and Trp-restricted ZnT8As were less prevalent in heterozygous than homozygous individuals. The SLC30A8 SNP allele frequency (75% C and 25% T) varied little with age of type 1 diabetes onset or the presence of other autoantibodies.
The finding that diabetes autoimmunity can be defined by a single polymorphic residue has not previously been documented. It argues against ZnT8 autoimmunity arising from molecular mimicry and suggests a mechanistic link between the two major forms of diabetes. It has implications for antigen-based therapeutic interventions because the response to ZnT8 administration could be protective or immunogenic depending on an individual's genotype.

1 Follower
 · 
140 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The detection of insulin autoantibodies (IAA) aids in the prediction of autoimmune diabetes development. However, the long-standing, gold standard 125I-insulin radiobinding assay (RBA) has low reproducibility between laboratories, long sample processing times and requires the use of newly synthesized radiolabeled insulin for each set of assays. Therefore, a rapid, non-radioactive, and reproducible assay is highly desirable. We have developed electrochemiluminescence (ECL)-based assays that fulfill these criteria in the measurement of IAA and anti-insulin antibodies (IA) in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice and in type 1 diabetic individuals, respectively. Using the murine IAA ECL assay, we examined the correlation between IAA, histopathological insulitis, and blood glucose in a cohort of female NOD mice from 4 up to 36 weeks of age. We developed a human IA ECL assay that we compared to conventional RBA and validated using samples from 34 diabetic and 59 non-diabetic individuals in three independent laboratories. Our ECL assays were rapid and sensitive with a broad dynamic range and low background. In the NOD mouse model, IAA levels measured by ECL were positively correlated with insulitis severity, and the values measured at 8-10 weeks of age were predictive of diabetes onset. Using human serum and plasma samples, our IA ECL assay yielded reproducible and accurate results with an average sensitivity of 84% at 95% specificity with no statistically significant difference between laboratories. These novel, non-radioactive ECL-based assays should facilitate reliable and fast detection of antibodies to insulin and its precursors sera and plasma in a standardized manner between laboratories in both research and clinical settings. Our next step is to evaluate the human IA assay in the detection of IAA in prediabetic subjects or those at risk of type 1 diabetes and to develop similar assays for other autoantibodies that together are predictive for the diagnosis of this common disorder, in order to improve prediction and facilitate future therapeutic trials.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 11/2011; 9:203. DOI:10.1186/1479-5876-9-203 · 3.99 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In type 1 diabetes, diabetes-associated autoantibodies, including islet cell antibodies (ICAs), reflect adaptive immunity, while increased serum N(ε)-carboxymethyl-lysine (CML), an advanced glycation end product, is associated with proinflammation. We assessed whether serum CML and autoantibodies predicted type 1 diabetes and to what extent they were determined by genetic or environmental factors. Of 7,287 unselected schoolchildren screened, 115 were ICA(+) and were tested for baseline CML and diabetes autoantibodies and followed (for median 7 years), whereas a random selection (n = 2,102) had CML tested. CML and diabetes autoantibodies were determined in a classic twin study of twin pairs discordant for type 1 diabetes (32 monozygotic, 32 dizygotic pairs). CML was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, autoantibodies were determined by radioimmunoprecipitation, ICA was determined by indirect immunofluorescence, and HLA class II genotyping was determined by sequence-specific oligonucleotides. CML was increased in ICA(+) and prediabetic schoolchildren and in diabetic and nondiabetic twins (all P < 0.001). Elevated levels of CML in ICA(+) children were a persistent, independent predictor of diabetes progression, in addition to autoantibodies and HLA risk. In twins model fitting, familial environment explained 75% of CML variance, and nonshared environment explained all autoantibody variance. Serum CML, a glycotoxin, emerged as an environmentally determined diabetes risk factor, in addition to autoimmunity and HLA genetic risk, and a potential therapeutic target.
    Diabetes 03/2012; 61(5):1192-8. DOI:10.2337/db11-0971 · 8.47 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The zinc (Zn(++)) transporter ZnT8 plays a crucial role in zinc homeostasis. It's been reported that an acute decrease in ZnT8 levels impairs β cell function and Zn(++) homeostasis, which contribute to the pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus (DM). Although ZnT8 expression has been detected in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), its expression profile in the retina has yet to be determined. Furthermore, the link between diabetes and ischemic retinopathy is well documented; nevertheless, the molecular mechanism(s) of such link has yet to be defined. Our aims were to; investigate the expression profile of ZnT8 in the retina; address the influence of ischemia on such expression; and evaluate the influence of YC-1; (3-(50-hydroxymethyl-20-furyl)-1-benzyl indazole), a hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) inhibitor, on the status of ZnT8 expression. We used real-time RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry, and Western blot in the mouse model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) and Müller cells to evaluate the effects of ischemia/hypoxia and YC-1 on ZnT8 expression. Our data indicate that ZnT8 was strongly expressed in the outer nuclear layer (ONL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), and nerve fiber layer (NFL), whereas the photoreceptor layer (PRL), inner nuclear layer (INL) and inner plexiform layer (IPL) showed moderate ZnT8 immunoreactivity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that retinal ischemic insult induces a significant downregulation of ZnT8 at the message and protein levels, YC-1 rescues the injured retina by restoring the ZnT8 to its basal homeostatic levels in the neovascular retinas. Our data indicate that ischemic retinopathy maybe mediated by aberrant Zn(++) homeostasis caused by ZnT8 downregulation, whereas YC-1 plays a neuroprotective role against ischemic insult. Therefore, targeting ZnT8 provides a therapeutic strategy to combat neovascular eye diseases.
    PLoS ONE 11/2012; 7(11):e50360. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0050360 · 3.53 Impact Factor

Preview (2 Sources)

Download
9 Downloads
Available from