In eukaryotes, S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine hydrolase (Sah1) offers a single way for degradation of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine, a product and potent competitive inhibitor of S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet)-dependent methyltransferases. De novo phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis requires three AdoMet-dependent methylation steps. Here we show that down-regulation of SAH1 expression in yeast leads to accumulation of S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine and decreased de novo PC synthesis in vivo. This decrease is accompanied by an increase in triacylglycerol (TG) levels, demonstrating that Sah1-regulated methylation has a major impact on cellular lipid homeostasis. TG accumulation is also observed in cho2 and opi3 mutants defective in methylation of phosphatidylethanolamine to PC, confirming that PC de novo synthesis and TG synthesis are metabolically coupled through the efficiency of the phospholipid methylation reaction. Indeed, because both types of lipids share phosphatidic acid as a precursor, we find in cells with down-regulated Sah1 activity major alterations in the expression of the INO1 gene as well as in the localization of Opi1, a negative regulatory factor of phospholipid synthesis, which binds and is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane by phosphatidic acid in conjunction with VAMP/synaptobrevin-associated protein, Scs2. The addition of homocysteine, by the reversal of the Sah1-catalyzed reaction, also leads to TG accumulation in yeast, providing an attractive model for the role of homocysteine as a risk factor of atherosclerosis in humans.
"Methionine, as a constituent of proteins, is also critical to biochemical pathways, including the “methyl cycle” which generates the key metabolite S-adnosylmethioinine (AdoMet) . As the main donor of methyl groups in methylation reactions, AdoMet plays a vital role in de novo phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis that requires three AdoMet-dependent methylation steps . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Our interest in Candida albicans mitochondria began with the identification of GOA1. We demonstrated its role in cell energy production, cross-talk among mitochondria and peroxisomes, non-glucose energy metabolism, maintenance of stationary phase growth, and prevention of premature apoptosis. Its absence results in avirulence. However, what regulated transcription of GOA1 was unknown.
To identify transcriptional regulators (TRs) of GOA1, we screened a C. albicans TF knockout library (TRKO) and identified Rbf1p, Hfl1p, and Dpb4p as positive TRs of GOA1. The phenotypes of each mutant (reduced respiration, inability to grow on glycerol, reduced ETC CI and CIV activities) are reasonable evidence for their required roles especially in mitochondrial functions. While the integration of mitochondria with cell metabolic activities is presumed to occur, there is minimal information on this subject at the genome level. Therefore, microarray analysis was used to provide this information for each TR mutant. Transcriptional profiles of Rbf1p and Hfl1p are more similar than that of Dpn4p. Our data demonstrate common and also gene-specific regulatory functions for each TR. We establish their roles in carbon metabolism, stress adaptation, cell wall synthesis, transporter efflux, peroxisomal metabolism, phospholipid synthesis, rRNA processing, and nuclear/mtDNA replication.
The TRs regulate a number of common genes but each also regulates specific gene transcription. These data for the first time create a genome roadmap that can be used to integrate mitochondria with other cell processes. Of interest, the TRs are fungal-specific, warranting consideration as antifungal drug targets.
"Thus, it is not surprising that processes affecting TAG homeostasis also affect phospholipid metabolism and, as a consequence, membrane function. Conversely, defective phospholipid synthesis and turnover also trigger TAG accumulation (Gaspar et al. 2008; Malanovic et al. 2008). This close metabolic interrelationship between TAG synthesis and membrane lipid composition and function may be the underlying cause of lipotoxic cell damage, which further underscores the importance of obtaining a clearer picture of the mechanisms of TAG storage into LD. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The 'discovery' of lipid droplets as a metabolically highly active subcellular organelle has sparked great scientific interest in its research in recent years. The previous view of a rather inert storage pool of neutral lipids-triacylglycerol and sterols or steryl esters-has markedly changed. Driven by the endemic dimensions of lipid-associated disorders on the one hand, and the promising biotechnological application to generate oils ('biodiesel') from single-celled organisms on the other, multiple model organisms are exploited in basic and applied research to develop a better understanding of biogenesis and metabolism of this organelle. This article summarizes the current status of LD research in yeast and experimental approaches to obtain insight into the regulatory and structural components driving lipid droplet formation and their physiological and pathophysiological roles in lipid homeostasis.
Current Genetics 09/2013; 59(4). DOI:10.1007/s00294-013-0407-9 · 2.68 Impact Factor
"Several epidemiological surveys, as well as observations from in vitro and in vivo studies, provided evidence that AdoHcy elevation parallels HHcy , , , , . Since AdoHcy is a strong methyltransferase inhibitor, a reduced cellular methylation capacity due to accumulation of AdoHcy may account for the detrimental effects associated with HHcy. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Methyltransferases use S-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet) as methyl group donor, forming S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) and methylated substrates, including DNA and proteins. AdoHcy inhibits most methyltransferases. Accumulation of intracellular AdoHcy secondary to Hcy elevation elicits global DNA hypomethylation. We aimed at determining the extent at which protein arginine methylation status is affected by accumulation of intracellular AdoHcy. AdoHcy accumulation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was induced by inhibition of AdoHcy hydrolase by adenosine-2,3-dialdehyde (AdOx). As a measure of protein arginine methylation status, the levels of monomethylarginine (MMA) and asymmetric and symmetric dimethylated arginine residues (ADMA and SDMA, respectively) in cell protein hydrolysates were measured by HPLC. A 10% decrease was observed at a 2.5-fold increase of intracellular AdoHcy. Western blotting revealed that the translational levels of the main enzymes catalyzing protein arginine methylation, protein arginine methyl transferases (PRMTs) 1 and 5, were not affected by AdoHcy accumulation. Global DNA methylation status was evaluated by measuring 5-methylcytosine and total cytosine concentrations in DNA hydrolysates by LC-MS/MS. DNA methylation decreased by 10% only when intracellular AdoHcy concentration accumulated to 6-fold of its basal value. In conclusion, our results indicate that protein arginine methylation is more sensitive to AdoHcy accumulation than DNA methylation, pinpointing a possible new player in methylation-related pathology.
PLoS ONE 02/2013; 8(2). DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0055483 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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