Metabolic syndrome affects fatty acid composition of plasma lipids in obese prepubertal children.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to assess the plasma fatty acid composition of the total plasma lipids and lipid fractions in obese prepubertal children with and without metabolic syndrome (MS). Thirty-four obese prepubertal children were recruited: 17 who met MS criteria and 17 who did not; and twenty prepubertal children of normal weight. MS characteristics, insulin resistance (by homeostasis model assessment [HOMA-IR]), and plasma adiponectin (by radioimmunoassay) were recorded. Separation of lipid fractions was performed by liquid chromatography and the concentration of fatty acids in total plasma lipids and fractions was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Concentrations of 16:1n-7, 16:1n-9, 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3, and n-3 PUFA in total plasma lipids (P < 0.05) and of 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, and n-6 PUFA in triacylglycerols (TG) (P < 0.05) were significantly higher in obese MS versus normal-weight children. Increased risk of MS was positively associated with plasma concentration of 16:1n-7 and negatively associated with proportion of 20:4n-6 (OR 2.76; P = 0.004; OR 0.56, P = 0.030, respectively). Saturated FA in TG were associated with HOMA-IR (R = 0.349, P = 0.017) and 22:5n-6 with adiponectin (R = 0.336, P = 0.05). In conclusion, increased concentrations of 16:1n-7 and decreased proportions of 20:4n-6 and 22:5n-6 in plasma lipids appear to be early markers of MS in children at prepubertal age.
- SourceAvailable from: Emilio González-Jiménez[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Unhealthy dietary habits are key determinants of obesity in adolescents. Assuming that dietary fat profile influences membrane lipid composition, the aim of this study was to analyze structural changes in the erythrocyte membrane of obese compared to normal-weight adolescents. The study was conducted in a group of 11 obese and 11 normal-weight adolescent subjects. The lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) activity were analyzed by conventional methods. The structural properties of reconstituted erythrocyte membrane were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Erythrocyte membrane from obese adolescents had a lipid profile characterized by a higher cholesterol/phospholipid ratio, an increase in saturated fatty acid and a decrease in monounsaturated and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations. Differences in lipid content were associated with changes in the structural properties of reconstituted membranes and the oxidative damage of erythrocyte membrane. The lower oxidative level shown in the obese group (0.15 ± 0.04 vs. 0.20 ± 0.06 nmol/mg for conjugated diene concentrations and 2.43 ± 0.25 vs. 2.83 ± 0.31 nmol/mg protein for malondialdehyde levels) was related to a lower unsaturation index. These changes in membrane structural properties were accompanied by a lower AChE activity (1.64 ± 0.13 vs. 1.91 ± 0.24 nmol AChE/[min mg protein]) in the obese group. The consequences of unhealthy dietary habits in adolescents are reflected in the membrane structural properties and may influence membrane-associated protein activities and functions.Journal of Membrane Biology 10/2013; DOI:10.1007/s00232-013-9596-x
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ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent behavioral disorder in children and the pathophysiology remains obscure. In addition to the pharmacotherapy, which is the primary treatment of ADHD, nutritional intervention may have a significant impact on ADHD symptoms. We studied lipid and lipoprotein profiles, fatty acid (FA) composition, and oxidant-antioxidant status in 37 pediatric ADHD patients and 35 healthy control subjects. Our results show that plasma triacylglycerols and phospholipids were lower, whereas free cholesterol, HDL, and apolipoprotein A-I were higher in ADHD patients compared with controls. The proportion of plasma EPA and DHA was higher, but that of oleic and alpha-linolenic (ALA) acids was lower. As expected from these findings, the proportions of both total saturates and polyunsaturates fatty acids (PUFA) were higher and lower, respectively, in ADHD patients than in controls, which led to a significant decrease in the PUFAs/saturates ratio. On the other hand, the ratios of eicosatrienoic acid to arachidonic acid and of palmitoleic acid to linoleic acid, established indexes of essential fatty acid (EFA) status remained unchanged revealing that EFA did not affect ADHD patients. Similarly, the activity of delta-6 desaturase, estimated by the ratio of 18:2(n-6)/20:4(n-6), was found unaffected, whereas ALA/EPA was diminished. Lessened lipid peroxidation was noted in ADHD subjects as documented by the diminished values of plasma malondialdehyde accompanied by increased concentrations of gamma-tocopherol. In conclusions, significant changes occur in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles, as well as in the oxidant-antioxidant status of ADHD patients, however, the FA distribution does not reflect n-3 FA deficiency.Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 09/2008; 79(1-2):47-53. DOI:10.1016/j.plefa.2008.07.005
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ABSTRACT: Leptin is involved in the long-term regulation of body weight and dietary intake, while ghrelin plays an essential role in appetite control. High levels of leptin have been associated with adiposity and the suppression of ghrelin levels with increased dietary intake. To evaluate fasting and postprandial concentrations of plasma leptin and ghrelin after intake of a standardised breakfast and to study the relationship of these hormones with adiposity and insulin resistance in obese prepubertal children. 34 obese and 20 normal-weight prepubertal children aged 6-12 years were selected. Plasma leptin and ghrelin were measured by ELISA and radioimmunoassay, respectively. The general linear model of variance, principal-component factor, and Pearson's analyses correlation were performed. Baseline and postprandial leptin levels were higher in obese versus normal-weight children. In obese, ghrelin showed an altered pattern during the postprandial period, recovering to baseline levels at 3h after the intake. Insulin resistance was associated with leptin and independently with ghrelin. The association of ghrelin with insulin resistance provides further evidence on the regulation of ghrelin in glucose homeostasis in childhood obesity at the prepubertal age. Changes in ghrelin after dietary intake may be related to an earlier recovery of appetite in prepubertal obese children.Clinical nutrition (Edinburgh, Scotland) 08/2009; 29(1):54-9. DOI:10.1016/j.clnu.2009.06.007