Metabolic syndrome affects fatty acid composition of plasma lipids in obese prepubertal children.
ABSTRACT The aim of the present study was to assess the plasma fatty acid composition of the total plasma lipids and lipid fractions in obese prepubertal children with and without metabolic syndrome (MS). Thirty-four obese prepubertal children were recruited: 17 who met MS criteria and 17 who did not; and twenty prepubertal children of normal weight. MS characteristics, insulin resistance (by homeostasis model assessment [HOMA-IR]), and plasma adiponectin (by radioimmunoassay) were recorded. Separation of lipid fractions was performed by liquid chromatography and the concentration of fatty acids in total plasma lipids and fractions was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Concentrations of 16:1n-7, 16:1n-9, 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3, and n-3 PUFA in total plasma lipids (P < 0.05) and of 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, and n-6 PUFA in triacylglycerols (TG) (P < 0.05) were significantly higher in obese MS versus normal-weight children. Increased risk of MS was positively associated with plasma concentration of 16:1n-7 and negatively associated with proportion of 20:4n-6 (OR 2.76; P = 0.004; OR 0.56, P = 0.030, respectively). Saturated FA in TG were associated with HOMA-IR (R = 0.349, P = 0.017) and 22:5n-6 with adiponectin (R = 0.336, P = 0.05). In conclusion, increased concentrations of 16:1n-7 and decreased proportions of 20:4n-6 and 22:5n-6 in plasma lipids appear to be early markers of MS in children at prepubertal age.
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ABSTRACT: Plasma fatty acid (FA) composition is known to be an indicator of dietary fat quality, but the associations of other dietary factors with plasma FA composition remain unknown in children. We investigated the cross-sectional associations of food consumption with the proportions of FA and estimated desaturase activities in plasma cholesteryl esters (CE) and phospholipids (PL) among children. The subjects were a population sample of 423 children aged 6-8 years examined at baseline of The Physical Activity and Nutrition in Children (PANIC) Study. We assessed food consumption by food records and plasma FA composition by gas chromatography. We used linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, physical activity and total energy intake to analyze the associations. A higher consumption of vegetable oil-based margarine (fat 60-80 %) was associated with a higher proportion of linoleic and α-linolenic acids in plasma CE and PL. A higher consumption of high-fiber grain products was related to a lower proportion of oleic acid in CE and PL. The consumption of candy was directly associated with the proportion of palmitoleic and oleic acid in plasma CE. The consumption of vegetable oil-based margarine was inversely associated with estimated stearoyl-CoA-desaturase activity in plasma CE and PL and the consumption of candy was directly related to it in plasma CE. The results of our study suggest that plasma FA composition is not only a biomarker for dietary fat quality but also reflects the consumption of high-fiber grain products and foods high in sugar among children.Lipids 03/2014; · 2.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent behavioral disorder in children and the pathophysiology remains obscure. In addition to the pharmacotherapy, which is the primary treatment of ADHD, nutritional intervention may have a significant impact on ADHD symptoms. We studied lipid and lipoprotein profiles, fatty acid (FA) composition, and oxidant-antioxidant status in 37 pediatric ADHD patients and 35 healthy control subjects. Our results show that plasma triacylglycerols and phospholipids were lower, whereas free cholesterol, HDL, and apolipoprotein A-I were higher in ADHD patients compared with controls. The proportion of plasma EPA and DHA was higher, but that of oleic and alpha-linolenic (ALA) acids was lower. As expected from these findings, the proportions of both total saturates and polyunsaturates fatty acids (PUFA) were higher and lower, respectively, in ADHD patients than in controls, which led to a significant decrease in the PUFAs/saturates ratio. On the other hand, the ratios of eicosatrienoic acid to arachidonic acid and of palmitoleic acid to linoleic acid, established indexes of essential fatty acid (EFA) status remained unchanged revealing that EFA did not affect ADHD patients. Similarly, the activity of delta-6 desaturase, estimated by the ratio of 18:2(n-6)/20:4(n-6), was found unaffected, whereas ALA/EPA was diminished. Lessened lipid peroxidation was noted in ADHD subjects as documented by the diminished values of plasma malondialdehyde accompanied by increased concentrations of gamma-tocopherol. In conclusions, significant changes occur in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles, as well as in the oxidant-antioxidant status of ADHD patients, however, the FA distribution does not reflect n-3 FA deficiency.Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 09/2008; 79(1-2):47-53. · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To assess the plasma phospholipid (PL) fatty acid composition in obese Mexican children and evaluate gender differences and predisposition to health risks. This was a case-control study of 100 obese and 100 normal-weight children aged 6-12 years. BMI, waist circumference, triceps skinfold, and percentage of body fat were determined. PL fatty acids were measured by gas chromatography. Compared to normal-weight children, obese children had significantly higher proportions of 18:0, 16:1n-7, 20:3n-6, saturated fatty acids (SFA), total highly unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs), and total n-3 but lower proportions of 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, 22:5n-6, monounsaturated fatty acids, and total n-9. Obese children had significantly higher ratios of 20:3n-6/18:2n-6 and 18:3n-6 + 20:3n-6/18:2n-6, and they had lower ratios of 20:4n-6/20:3n-6 and n-6/n-3. The predictors positively associated with obesity, in decreasing association strength, were 16:1n-7, 20:3n-6, and SFA. Obese boys showed significantly higher 20:4n-6, 20:5n-3, 20:3n-6/18:2 n-6, 18:3n-6 + 20:3n-6/18:2n-6, and 20:5n-3/20:4n-6, higher UFAs, and lower 18:2n-6 and 22:6n-3/20:4n-6 compared to obese girls (p < 0.05). Significant alterations in the proportions of plasma PL fatty acids were found in obese children, especially in male subjects, which might place them in danger of early cardiovascular risk; however, an insulin-resistant state might be responsible for their fatty acid composition. More studies are needed since there are none in Mexican children.Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism 01/2010; 57(3-4):234-41. · 1.66 Impact Factor