Metabolic syndrome affects fatty acid composition of plasma lipids in obese prepubertal children

Unit of Paediatric Endocrinology, Reina Sofia University Hospital, Cordoba, Spain.
Lipids (Impact Factor: 1.85). 07/2008; 43(8):723-32. DOI: 10.1007/s11745-008-3203-4
Source: PubMed


The aim of the present study was to assess the plasma fatty acid composition of the total plasma lipids and lipid fractions in obese prepubertal children with and without metabolic syndrome (MS). Thirty-four obese prepubertal children were recruited: 17 who met MS criteria and 17 who did not; and twenty prepubertal children of normal weight. MS characteristics, insulin resistance (by homeostasis model assessment [HOMA-IR]), and plasma adiponectin (by radioimmunoassay) were recorded. Separation of lipid fractions was performed by liquid chromatography and the concentration of fatty acids in total plasma lipids and fractions was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. Concentrations of 16:1n-7, 16:1n-9, 18:3n-3, 22:6n-3, and n-3 PUFA in total plasma lipids (P < 0.05) and of 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:1n-9, 18:2n-6, and n-6 PUFA in triacylglycerols (TG) (P < 0.05) were significantly higher in obese MS versus normal-weight children. Increased risk of MS was positively associated with plasma concentration of 16:1n-7 and negatively associated with proportion of 20:4n-6 (OR 2.76; P = 0.004; OR 0.56, P = 0.030, respectively). Saturated FA in TG were associated with HOMA-IR (R = 0.349, P = 0.017) and 22:5n-6 with adiponectin (R = 0.336, P = 0.05). In conclusion, increased concentrations of 16:1n-7 and decreased proportions of 20:4n-6 and 22:5n-6 in plasma lipids appear to be early markers of MS in children at prepubertal age.

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    • "In MHO individuals, circulating levels of monounsaturated FAs (MUFA) TG-oleic, TG-erucic, and PL-erucic acids were similar to that observed in MUO individuals, but different from LH individuals. Oleic acid was previously shown to be elevated in obese individuals and those at increased risk of metabolic syndrome [45], [46]. Moreover, detecting increased oleic acid in the TG fraction (as opposed to the PL fraction) of obese individuals agrees with previous work by Gil-Campos et al. [46]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is associated with numerous health complications; however, a subgroup of obese individuals (termed the metabolically healthy obese or MHO) appear to have lower risk for complications such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Emerging evidence suggests that MHO individuals have reduced inflammation compared to their metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) counterparts. As it is recognized that fatty acids (FAs) have a strong relationship with inflammation, the current study aimed to uncover if the reduced inflammation observed in MHO individuals is mirrored by a more favourable FA profile. Fasted serum samples were collected from lean healthy (LH), MHO, and MUO participants (n = 10/group) recruited from the Diabetes Risk Assessment study. A panel of pro- and anti-inflammatory markers were measured by immunoassay. Total serum FA profiling, as well as the FA composition of circulating phospholipids (PL) and triglycerides (TG), was measured by gas chromatography. ANOVA and Mann-Whitney-Wilcoxon tests were used to assess statistical significance between the groups (P<0.05). MHO and MUO individuals had similar BMI and body fat %; however, lipid parameters in MHO individuals more closely resembled that of LH individuals. MHO individuals had circulating levels of high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) similar to LH individuals, while levels of platelet derived growth factor-ββ (PDGF-ββ) were intermediate to that of LH and MUO individuals. FA profiling analysis combined with discriminant analysis modelling highlighted a panel of nine FAs (consisting of three saturated, three monounsaturated, and three polyunsaturated FAs) in PL and TG fractions that distinguished the three groups. Specifically, saturated FA (myristic and stearic acids) levels in MHO individuals resembled that of LH individuals. Our results suggest that the reduced inflammatory state of MHO individuals compared to MUO individuals may stem, in part, from a more favourable underlying FA profile.
    PLoS ONE 02/2014; 9(2):e88539. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0088539 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "The relevance of linoleic acid in erythrocyte membranes of adolescent subjects is in contrast with a previous study that showed lower n-3 PUFA content and higher oxidative damage in erythrocyte membranes of overweight and obese women (Cazzola et al. 2004). There are scarce data regarding the lipid profile of obese children and adolescents (Warensjo et al. 2006), mostly corresponding to the plasma lipid fraction (Agostoni et al. 1994; Gil-Campos et al. 2008). Some common features reported are an alteration in linoleic acid metabolism (Reynoso et al. 2003) and a high contribution of n-6 PUFA. "
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    ABSTRACT: Unhealthy dietary habits are key determinants of obesity in adolescents. Assuming that dietary fat profile influences membrane lipid composition, the aim of this study was to analyze structural changes in the erythrocyte membrane of obese compared to normal-weight adolescents. The study was conducted in a group of 11 obese and 11 normal-weight adolescent subjects. The lipid profile, lipid peroxidation and acetylcholinesterase enzyme (AChE) activity were analyzed by conventional methods. The structural properties of reconstituted erythrocyte membrane were characterized by X-ray diffraction. Erythrocyte membrane from obese adolescents had a lipid profile characterized by a higher cholesterol/phospholipid ratio, an increase in saturated fatty acid and a decrease in monounsaturated and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations. Differences in lipid content were associated with changes in the structural properties of reconstituted membranes and the oxidative damage of erythrocyte membrane. The lower oxidative level shown in the obese group (0.15 ± 0.04 vs. 0.20 ± 0.06 nmol/mg for conjugated diene concentrations and 2.43 ± 0.25 vs. 2.83 ± 0.31 nmol/mg protein for malondialdehyde levels) was related to a lower unsaturation index. These changes in membrane structural properties were accompanied by a lower AChE activity (1.64 ± 0.13 vs. 1.91 ± 0.24 nmol AChE/[min mg protein]) in the obese group. The consequences of unhealthy dietary habits in adolescents are reflected in the membrane structural properties and may influence membrane-associated protein activities and functions.
    Journal of Membrane Biology 10/2013; 246(12). DOI:10.1007/s00232-013-9596-x · 2.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent behavioral disorder in children and the pathophysiology remains obscure. In addition to the pharmacotherapy, which is the primary treatment of ADHD, nutritional intervention may have a significant impact on ADHD symptoms. We studied lipid and lipoprotein profiles, fatty acid (FA) composition, and oxidant-antioxidant status in 37 pediatric ADHD patients and 35 healthy control subjects. Our results show that plasma triacylglycerols and phospholipids were lower, whereas free cholesterol, HDL, and apolipoprotein A-I were higher in ADHD patients compared with controls. The proportion of plasma EPA and DHA was higher, but that of oleic and alpha-linolenic (ALA) acids was lower. As expected from these findings, the proportions of both total saturates and polyunsaturates fatty acids (PUFA) were higher and lower, respectively, in ADHD patients than in controls, which led to a significant decrease in the PUFAs/saturates ratio. On the other hand, the ratios of eicosatrienoic acid to arachidonic acid and of palmitoleic acid to linoleic acid, established indexes of essential fatty acid (EFA) status remained unchanged revealing that EFA did not affect ADHD patients. Similarly, the activity of delta-6 desaturase, estimated by the ratio of 18:2(n-6)/20:4(n-6), was found unaffected, whereas ALA/EPA was diminished. Lessened lipid peroxidation was noted in ADHD subjects as documented by the diminished values of plasma malondialdehyde accompanied by increased concentrations of gamma-tocopherol. In conclusions, significant changes occur in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles, as well as in the oxidant-antioxidant status of ADHD patients, however, the FA distribution does not reflect n-3 FA deficiency.
    Prostaglandins Leukotrienes and Essential Fatty Acids 09/2008; 79(1-2):47-53. DOI:10.1016/j.plefa.2008.07.005 · 2.35 Impact Factor
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