Osmolarity influences chondrocyte death in wounded articular cartilage.
ABSTRACT Mechanical injury results in chondrocyte death in articular cartilage. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether medium osmolarity affects chondrocyte death in injured articular cartilage.
Osteochondral explants (n = 48) that had been harvested from the metacarpophalangeal joints of three-year-old cows were exposed to media with varying osmolarity (0 to 480 mOsm) for ninety seconds to allow in situ chondrocytes to respond to the altered osmotic environment. Explants were then wounded with a scalpel through the full thickness of articular cartilage, incubated in the same media for 2.5 hours, and transferred to 340-mOsm Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (control medium) with further incubation for seven days. The spatial distribution of in situ chondrocyte death, percentage cell death, and marginal cell death at the wounded cartilage edge were compared as a function of osmolarity and time (2.5 hours compared with seven days) with use of confocal laser scanning microscopy.
In situ chondrocyte death was mainly localized to the superficial tangential zone of injured articular cartilage for the range of medium osmolarities (0 to 480 mOsm) at 2.5 hours and seven days. Therefore, a sample of articular cartilage from the superficial region (which included the scalpel-wounded cartilage edge) was studied with use of confocal laser scanning microscopy to compare the effects of osmolarity on percentage and marginal cell death in the superficial tangential zone. Compared with the control explants exposed to 340-mOsm Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium, percentage cell death in the superficial tangential zone was greatest for explants exposed to 0-mOsm (distilled water) and least for explants exposed to 480-mOsm Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium at 2.5 hours (13.0% at 340 mOsm [control], 35.5% at 0 mOsm, and 4.3% at 480 mOsm; p <or= 0.02 for paired comparisons) and seven days (9.9% at 340 mOsm [control], 37.7% at 0 mOsm, and 3.5% at 480 mOsm; p <or= 0.01 for paired comparisons). Marginal cell death in the superficial tangential zone decreased with increasing medium osmolarity at 2.5 hours (p = 0.001) and seven days (p = 0.002). There was no significant change in percentage cell death from 2.5 hours to seven days for explants initially exposed to any of the medium osmolarities.
Medium osmolarity significantly affects chondrocyte death in wounded articular cartilage. The greatest chondrocyte death occurs at 0 mOsm. Conversely, increased medium osmolarity (480 mOsm) is chondroprotective. The majority of cell death occurs within 2.5 hours, with no significant increase over seven days.
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ABSTRACT: Primary cilia are microtubule-based organelles that project from the cell surface to enable transduction of various developmental signaling pathways. The process of intraflagellar transport (IFT) is crucial for the building and maintenance of primary cilia. Ciliary dysfunction has been found in a range of disorders called ciliopathies, some of which display severe skeletal dysplasias. In recent years, interest has grown in uncovering the function of primary cilia/IFT proteins in bone development, mechanotransduction, and cellular regulation. We summarize recent advances in understanding the function of cilia and IFT proteins in the regulation of cell differentiation in osteoblasts, osteocytes, chondrocytes, and mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). We also discuss the mechanosensory function of cilia and IFT proteins in bone cells, cilia orientation, and other functions of cilia in chondrocytes.Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 06/2014; · 4.38 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cell viability is crucial for effective cell-based cartilage repair. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of handling the membrane during matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation surgery on the viability of implanted chondrocytes. Images were acquired under five conditions: (i) Pre-operative; (ii) Handled during surgery; (iii) Cut edge; (iv) Thumb pressure applied; (v) Heavily grasped with forceps. Live and dead cell stains were used. Images were obtained for cell counting and morphology. Mean cell density was 6.60 × 105 cells/cm2 (5.74–7.11 × 105) in specimens that did not have significant trauma decreasing significantly in specimens that had been grasped with forceps (p < 0.001) or cut (p = 0.004). Cell viability on delivery grade membrane was 75.1%(72.4–77.8%). This dropped to 67.4%(64.1–69.7%) after handling (p = 0.002), 56.3%(51.5–61.6%) after being thumbed (p < 0.001) and 28.8%(24.7–31.2%) after crushing with forceps (p < 0.001). When cut with scissors there was a band of cell death approximately 275 µm in width where cell viability decreased to 13.7%(10.2–18.2%, p < 0.001). Higher magnification revealed cells without the typical rounded appearance of chondrocytes. We found that confocal laser-scanning microscope (CLSM) can be used to quantify and image the fine morphology of cells on a matrix-induced autologous chondrocyte implantation (MACI) membrane. Careful handling of the membrane is essential to minimise chondrocyte death during surgery. © 2014. Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop ResJournal of Orthopaedic Research 08/2014; · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective To assess in situ chondrocyte viability following exposure to a laboratory strain and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Methods Bovine cartilage explants were cultured in the presence of S. aureus 8325-4 (laboratory strain), clinical S. aureus isolates or non-infected culture medium of pH values 7.4, 6.4 and 5.4. All clinical isolates were isolated from the joint aspirates of patients presenting with S. aureus-induced septic arthritis (SA). At designated time points, in situ chondrocyte viability was assessed within defined regions-of-interest in the axial and coronal plane following live- and dead-cell image acquisition using the fluorescent probes 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) and propidium iodide (PI), respectively, and confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM). Cartilage water content, following S. aureus 8325-4 exposure, was obtained by measuring cartilage wet and dry weights. Results S. aureus 8325-4 and clinical S. aureus isolates rapidly reduced in situ chondrocyte viability (>45% chondrocyte death at 40 h). The increased acidity, observed during bacterial culture, had a minimal effect on chondrocyte viability. Chondrocyte death commenced within the superficial zone (SZ) and rapidly progressed to the deep zone (DZ). Simultaneous exposure of SZ and DZ chondrocytes to S. aureus 8325-4 toxins found SZ chondrocytes to be more susceptible to the toxins than DZ chondrocytes. Cartilage water content was not significantly altered compared to non-infected controls. Conclusions Toxins released by S. aureus have a rapid and fatal action on in situ chondrocytes in this experimental model of SA. These data advocate the prompt and thorough removal of bacteria and their toxins during the treatment of SA.Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 01/2013; 21(11):1755–1765. · 4.26 Impact Factor