Osmolarity influences chondrocyte death in wounded articular cartilage.
ABSTRACT Mechanical injury results in chondrocyte death in articular cartilage. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether medium osmolarity affects chondrocyte death in injured articular cartilage.
Osteochondral explants (n = 48) that had been harvested from the metacarpophalangeal joints of three-year-old cows were exposed to media with varying osmolarity (0 to 480 mOsm) for ninety seconds to allow in situ chondrocytes to respond to the altered osmotic environment. Explants were then wounded with a scalpel through the full thickness of articular cartilage, incubated in the same media for 2.5 hours, and transferred to 340-mOsm Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (control medium) with further incubation for seven days. The spatial distribution of in situ chondrocyte death, percentage cell death, and marginal cell death at the wounded cartilage edge were compared as a function of osmolarity and time (2.5 hours compared with seven days) with use of confocal laser scanning microscopy.
In situ chondrocyte death was mainly localized to the superficial tangential zone of injured articular cartilage for the range of medium osmolarities (0 to 480 mOsm) at 2.5 hours and seven days. Therefore, a sample of articular cartilage from the superficial region (which included the scalpel-wounded cartilage edge) was studied with use of confocal laser scanning microscopy to compare the effects of osmolarity on percentage and marginal cell death in the superficial tangential zone. Compared with the control explants exposed to 340-mOsm Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium, percentage cell death in the superficial tangential zone was greatest for explants exposed to 0-mOsm (distilled water) and least for explants exposed to 480-mOsm Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium at 2.5 hours (13.0% at 340 mOsm [control], 35.5% at 0 mOsm, and 4.3% at 480 mOsm; p <or= 0.02 for paired comparisons) and seven days (9.9% at 340 mOsm [control], 37.7% at 0 mOsm, and 3.5% at 480 mOsm; p <or= 0.01 for paired comparisons). Marginal cell death in the superficial tangential zone decreased with increasing medium osmolarity at 2.5 hours (p = 0.001) and seven days (p = 0.002). There was no significant change in percentage cell death from 2.5 hours to seven days for explants initially exposed to any of the medium osmolarities.
Medium osmolarity significantly affects chondrocyte death in wounded articular cartilage. The greatest chondrocyte death occurs at 0 mOsm. Conversely, increased medium osmolarity (480 mOsm) is chondroprotective. The majority of cell death occurs within 2.5 hours, with no significant increase over seven days.
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ABSTRACT: Nucleus pulposus (NP) plays a prominent role in both the onset and progression of intervertebral disc degeneration. While autologous repair strategies have demonstrated some success, their in vitro culture system is outdated and insufficient for maintaining optimally functioning cells through the required extensive passaging. Consequently, the final population of cells may be unsuitable for the overwhelming task of repairing tissue in vivo and could result in subpar clinical outcomes. Recent work has identified synovium-derived stem cells (SDSCs) as a potentially important new candidate. This population of precursors can promote matrix regeneration and additionally restore the balance of catabolic and anabolic metabolism of surrounding cells. Another promising application is their ability to produce extracellular matrix in vitro which can be modified via decellularization to produce a tissue-specific substrate for efficient cell expansion while retaining chondrogenic potential. When combined with hypoxia, soluble factors, and other environmental regulators, the resultant complex microenvironment will more closely resemble the in vivo niche which further improves cell capacity, even after extensive passaging. In this review, the adaptive mechanisms NP cells utilize in vivo are considered for insight into what factors are important for constructing a tissue-specific in vitro niche. Evidence for the use of SDSCs for NP regeneration is also discussed. Many aspects of NP behavior are still unknown which could lead to future work yielding key information on producing sufficient numbers of a high-quality NP-specific population that is able to regenerate deteriorated NP in vivo.Stem cells and development 12/2012; · 4.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Mechanical autotransfusion systems for washed shed blood (WSB) were introduced to reduce the need for postoperative allogenic blood transfusions (ABTs). Although some authors have postulated decreased requirements for ABT by using autologous retransfusion devices, other trials, mostly evaluating retransfusion devices for unwashed shed blood (USB), verified a small or no benefit in reducing the need for postoperative ABT. Because of these contradictory findings it is still unclear whether autologous retransfusion systems for WSB can reduce transfusion requirements. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: We therefore asked whether one such autologous transfusion system for WSB can reduce the requirements for postoperative ABT. METHODS: In a prospective, randomized, controlled study, we enrolled 151 patients undergoing TKA. In Group A (n = 76 patients), the autotransfusion system was used for a total of 6 hours (intraoperatively and postoperatively) and the WSB was retransfused after processing. In Control Group B (n = 75 patients), a regular drain without suction was used. We used signs of anemia and/or a hemoglobin value less than 8 g/dL as indications for transfusion. If necessary, we administered one or two units of allogenic blood. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients (33%) in Group A, who received an average of 283 mL (range, 160-406 mL) of salvaged blood, needed a mean of 2.1 units of allogenic blood, compared with 23 patients (33%) in Control Group B who needed a mean of 2.1 units of allogenic blood. CONCLUSIONS: We found the use of an autotransfusion system did not reduce the rate of postoperative ABTs. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level II, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 12/2012; · 2.79 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective To assess in situ chondrocyte viability following exposure to a laboratory strain and clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus. Methods Bovine cartilage explants were cultured in the presence of S. aureus 8325-4 (laboratory strain), clinical S. aureus isolates or non-infected culture medium of pH values 7.4, 6.4 and 5.4. All clinical isolates were isolated from the joint aspirates of patients presenting with S. aureus-induced septic arthritis (SA). At designated time points, in situ chondrocyte viability was assessed within defined regions-of-interest in the axial and coronal plane following live- and dead-cell image acquisition using the fluorescent probes 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate (CMFDA) and propidium iodide (PI), respectively, and confocal laser-scanning microscopy (CLSM). Cartilage water content, following S. aureus 8325-4 exposure, was obtained by measuring cartilage wet and dry weights. Results S. aureus 8325-4 and clinical S. aureus isolates rapidly reduced in situ chondrocyte viability (>45% chondrocyte death at 40 h). The increased acidity, observed during bacterial culture, had a minimal effect on chondrocyte viability. Chondrocyte death commenced within the superficial zone (SZ) and rapidly progressed to the deep zone (DZ). Simultaneous exposure of SZ and DZ chondrocytes to S. aureus 8325-4 toxins found SZ chondrocytes to be more susceptible to the toxins than DZ chondrocytes. Cartilage water content was not significantly altered compared to non-infected controls. Conclusions Toxins released by S. aureus have a rapid and fatal action on in situ chondrocytes in this experimental model of SA. These data advocate the prompt and thorough removal of bacteria and their toxins during the treatment of SA.Osteoarthritis and Cartilage 01/2013; 21(11):1755–1765. · 4.26 Impact Factor