Genetic and environmental determinants of 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels in Hispanic and African Americans.

Department of Population Health Sciences, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 610 Walnut Street, 1007A WARF, Madison, Wisconsin 53726-2397, USA.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology &amp Metabolism (Impact Factor: 6.31). 08/2008; 93(9):3381-8. DOI: 10.1210/jc.2007-2702
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Vitamin D deficiency is associated with many adverse health outcomes, yet little is known about the genetic epidemiology of vitamin D or its metabolites.
Our objective was to examine the relationship among three vitamin D-related genes and levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] in Hispanics (HAs) and African Americans (AAs).
The cross-sectional Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study recruited and examined subjects in: Los Angeles, California (AAs; 513 individuals from 42 families); San Luis Valley (SLV), Colorado (HAs; 513 individuals from 30 families); and San Antonio (SA), Texas (HAs; 504 individuals from 58 families).
Plasma levels of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D were measured.
Levels of 25(OH)D were highest in SLV-HAs [18.3 +/- 7.7 ng/ml (45.7 +/- 19.2 nmol/liter)], lower in SA-HAs [14.6 +/- 6.4 ng/ml (36.4 +/- 16.0 nmol/liter)], and lowest in AAs [11.0 +/- 5.4 ng/ml (27.5 +/- 13.5 nmol/liter)]. Levels of 1,25(OH)2D were similar in AAs [43.5 +/- 13.9 pg/ml (113.1 +/- 36.1 pmol/liter)] and SLV-HAs [43.2 +/- 13.3 pg/ml (112.3 +/- 34.6 pmol/liter)], but higher in SA-HAs [48.6 +/- 17.0 pg/ml (126.4 +/- 44.2 pmol/liter)]. After adjusting for gender and age within the site, two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D binding protein gene (DBP), rs4588 and rs7041, were associated with 25(OH)D, and one SNP in the DBP, rs4588, was associated with 1,25(OH)2D at all three study centers.
SNPs in the DBP are associated with levels of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D in HA and AA participants in the Insulin Resistance Atherosclerosis Family Study.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Vitamin D3 is a pleiotropic signaling molecule that has via activation of the transcription factor vitamin D receptor (VDR) a direct effect on the expression of more than 100 genes. The aim of this study was to find transcriptomic and clinical biomarkers that are most suited to identify vitamin D3 responders within 71 pre-diabetic subjects during a 5-month intervention study (VitDmet). In hematopoietic cells, the genes ASAP2, CAMP, CD14, CD97, DUSP10, G0S2, IL8, LRRC8A, NINJ1, NRIP1, SLC37A2 and THBD are known as primary vitamin D targets. We demonstrate that each of these 12 genes carries a conserved VDR binding site within its genomic region and is expressed in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The changes in the expression of these genes in human PBMCs at the start and the end of the vitamin D-intervention were systematically correlated with the alteration in the circulating form of vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3). Only 39-44 (55-62%) of the study subjects showed a highly significant response to vitamin D3, i.e., we considered them as "responders". In comparison, we found for 37-53 (52-75%) of the participants that only 12 biochemical and clinical parameters, such as concentrations of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and insulin, or computed values, such as homeostatic model assessment and insulin sensitivity index, show a correlation with serum 25(OH)D3 levels that is as high as that of the selected VDR target genes. All 24 parameters together described the pleiotropic vitamin D response of the VitDmet study subjects. Interestingly, they demonstrated a number of additional correlations that define a network, in which PTH plays the central role. In conclusion, vitamin D3-induced changes in human PBMCs can be described by transcriptomic and serum biomarkers and allow a segregation into high and low responders. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled '17th Vitamin D Workshop' . Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 11/2014; · 4.05 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Extracellular calcium participates in several key physiological functions, such as control of blood coagulation, bone calcification or muscle contraction. Calcium homeostasis in humans is regulated in part by genetic factors, as illustrated by rare monogenic diseases characterized by hypo or hypercalcaemia. Both serum calcium and urinary calcium excretion are heritable continuous traits in humans. Serum calcium levels are tightly regulated by two main hormonal systems, i.e. parathyroid hormone and vitamin D, which are themselves also influenced by genetic factors. Recent technological advances in molecular biology allow for the screening of the human genome at an unprecedented level of detail and using hypothesis-free approaches, such as genome-wide association studies (GWAS). GWAS identified novel loci for calcium-related phenotypes (i.e. serum calcium and 25-OH vitamin D) that shed new light on the biology of calcium in humans. The substantial overlap (i.e. CYP24A1, CASR, GATA3; CYP2R1) between genes involved in rare monogenic diseases and genes located within loci identified in GWAS suggests a genetic and phenotypic continuum between monogenic diseases of calcium homeostasis and slight disturbances of calcium homeostasis in the general population. Future studies using whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing will further advance our understanding of the genetic architecture of calcium homeostasis in humans. These findings will likely provide new insight into the complex mechanisms involved in calcium homeostasis and hopefully lead to novel preventive and therapeutic approaches. Keyword: calcium, monogenic, genome-wide association studies, genetics.
    Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 09/2014; 29(suppl 4):iv55-iv62. · 3.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Patients with sickle cell disease in the USA have been noted to have lower levels of vitamin D - measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) - compared to controls. Average serum 25(OH)D levels are also substantially lower in African Americans than whites, while population distributions of 25(OH)D among Jamaicans of African descent and West Africans are the same as among USA whites. The purpose of this study was to examine whether adult patients with sickle cell disease living in tropical regions had reduced 25(OH)D relative to the general population.
    BMC hematology. 01/2014; 14(1):12.

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
Aug 4, 2014