Vaccinia virus blocks Stat1-dependent and Stat1-independent gene expression induced by type I and type II interferons.
ABSTRACT Blocking the function of Stat (signal transducer and activator of transcription) proteins, which are critical for antiviral responses, has evolved as a common mechanism for pathogen immune evasion. The poxvirus-encoded phosphatase H1 is critical for viral replication, and may play an additional role in the evasion of host defense by dephosphorylating Stat1 and blocking interferon (IFN)-stimulated innate immune responses. Vaccinia virus (VACV) H1 can inhibit the phosphorylation of the transcription factor Stat1 after IFN-gamma stimulation of epithelial cells, greatly attenuating IFN-induced biological functions. In this study, we demonstrate that VACV infection is capable of inhibiting the phosphorylation of Stat1 and Stat2 after stimulation of fibroblasts or bone marrow-derived macrophages with either type I or type II IFNs, but did not inhibit the activation of Stat3 or Stat5 in either cell type. By using recombinant proteins for in vitro assays, we observe that variola virus H1 is more active than VACV H1, although it has similar selectivity for Stat targets. Differential effects of VACV infection were observed on the induction of IFN-stimulated genes, with complete inhibition of some genes by VACV infection, while others were less affected. Despite the IFN-gamma-induced expression of some genes in VACV-infected cells, IFN-gamma was unable to rescue the VACV-mediated inhibition of MHC class II antigen presentation. Moreover, VACV infection can affect the IFN-induced expression of Stat1-dependent and Stat1-independent genes, suggesting that the virus may target additional IFN-activated pathways. Thus, VACV targets multiple signaling pathways in the evasion of antiviral immune responses.
Article: T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase, distinctively expressed in activated-B-cell-like diffuse large B-cell lymphomas, is the nuclear phosphatase of STAT6.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) consist of clinically distinct subtypes: germinal center B-cell (GCB)-like and activated-B-cell (ABC)-like tumors, characterized by long and short survival, respectively. We reported distinct interleukin 4 (IL-4) responsiveness and STAT6 signaling in these DLBCL subtypes. Increased nuclear dephosphorylation of phospho-STAT6 (pSTAT6) was observed in ABC-like tumors, which exhibited a different expression profile of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Among the differentially expressed PTPs, only T-cell PTP (TCPTP) localizes to the nucleus. Herein, we report that the elevated expression of TCPTP in ABC- versus GCB-like DLBCL tumors is not due to the distinct ontogeny of these neoplasms but rather may be an acquired feature of the tumors. Moreover, we report that STAT6 may serve as a physiological nuclear substrate for TCPTP. We demonstrate interactions between endogenous TCPTP and STAT6 and delineate the domains responsible for the interaction. Overexpression of TCPTP ameliorates IL-4-induced STAT6 phosphorylation and associated gene transcription, whereas knockdown of endogenous TCPTP results in increased IL-4-induced STAT6 signaling. Moreover, we report that TCPTP protein levels may be increased in response to IL-4 and that TCPTP may serve in a negative feedback loop for the suppression of IL-4-induced signaling. Taken together, these results identify TCPTP as a physiological regulator of STAT6 phosphorylation and suggest that specific increases in TCPTP expression in ABC-like DLBCLs may contribute to the different biological characteristics of these tumors.Molecular and Cellular Biology 04/2007; 27(6):2166-79. · 5.53 Impact Factor
Article: Vaccinia, cowpox, and camelpox viruses encode soluble gamma interferon receptors with novel broad species specificity.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Soluble receptors for gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) are secreted from cells infected by 17 orthopoxviruses, including vaccinia, cowpox, rabbitpox, buffalopox, elephantpox, and camelpox viruses, representing three species (vaccinia, cowpox, and campelpox viruses). The B8R open reading frame of vaccinia virus strain Western Reserve, which has sequence similarity to the extracellular binding domain of cellular IFN-gamma receptors (IFN-gamma Rs), is shown to encode an IFN-gamma binding activity by expression in recombinant baculovirus. The soluble virus IFN-gamma Rs bind IFN-gamma and, by preventing its interaction with the cellular receptor, interfere with the antiviral effects induced by this cytokine. Interestingly, in contrast to cellular IFN-gamma Rs, which are highly species specific, the vaccinia, cowpox, and camelpox virus IFN-gamma Rs bind and inhibit the biological activity of human, bovine, and rat IFN-gamma but not mouse IFN-gamma. This unique broad species specificity of the IFN-gamma R would aid virus replication in different species and suggests that vaccinia, cowpox, and camelpox viruses may have evolved in several species, possibly including humans but excluding mice. Last, the conservation of an IFN-gamma R in orthopoxviruses emphasizes the importance of IFN-gamma in defense against poxvirus infections.Journal of Virology 09/1995; 69(8):4633-9. · 5.40 Impact Factor
Article: Conditional deletion of Shp2 in the mammary gland leads to impaired lobulo-alveolar outgrowth and attenuated Stat5 activation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Stat5 and Stat3, two members of the Stat (signal transducer and activator of transcription) family, are known to play critical roles in mammopoiesis/lactogenesis and involution, respectively, in the mammary gland. Phosphotyrosine phosphatase Shp2 has been shown to dephosphorylate and thus inactivate both Stat5 and Stat3 in vitro. Paradoxically, cell culture studies also suggest a positive role of Shp2 in promoting prolactin-stimulated Stat5 activation. We have shown here that selective deletion of Shp2 in mouse mammary glands suppresses Stat5 activity during pregnancy and lactation, resulting in significant impairment of lobulo-alveolar outgrowth and lactation. In contrast, Stat3 activity was slightly up-regulated shortly before/at involution, leading to normal epithelial cell apoptosis/involution in Shp2-deficient mammary gland. Thus, Shp2 acts to promote Stat5 activation by the JAK2.prolactin receptor complex, while negatively modulating Stat3 activity before the onset of involution. This is the first demonstration that Shp2 manipulates Stat5 and Stat3 activities reciprocally in mammary epithelial cells, providing novel insight into the complex mechanisms for regulation of various Stat family members by a cytoplasmic tyrosine phosphatase.Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2006; 281(45):34374-80. · 4.77 Impact Factor