Article

Child care problems and employment among families with preschool-aged children with autism in the United States

Children's Institute, 271 N Goodman St, Suite D103, Rochester, NY 14607, USA.
PEDIATRICS (Impact Factor: 5.3). 08/2008; 122(1):e202-8. DOI: 10.1542/peds.2007-3037
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The impact of childhood autism on parental employment is largely unknown.
The purpose of this work was to describe the child care arrangements of children with autism and to determine whether families of preschool-aged children with autism are more likely to report that child care arrangements affected employment compared with typically developing children and children at high risk for developmental problems. METHODS. Parents of 16282 preschool-aged children were surveyed by the National Survey of Children's Health. An autism spectrum disorder was defined as an affirmative response to the question, "Has a doctor or health professional ever told you that [child] has any of the following conditions? Autism?" There were 82 children with autism spectrum disorder in the sample, and 1955 children at high risk on the basis of the Parent's Evaluation of Developmental Status. We used chi(2) and multivariate logistic regression analyses.
Ninety-seven percent of preschool-aged children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder were cared for in community settings, particularly preschool and Head Start, with only 3% in exclusive parental care. Thirty-nine percent of the parents of children with autism spectrum disorder reported that child care problems had greatly affected their employment decisions, compared with 16% of the children at high risk and 9% of those who were typically developing. In multivariate analyses, families with a child with autism spectrum disorder were 7 times more likely to state that child care problems affected employment than other families, after controlling for household and child covariates. This effect was 3 times larger than the effect of poverty.
Developmental problems and autism spectrum disorder are associated with higher use of child care services and higher probability that child care problems will greatly affect employment. These findings warrant evaluation of the community resources available to families with children with special needs.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Guillermo Montes, Jul 15, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
169 Views
  • Source
    • "In addition to the negative impact of ASD on the child, the condition has also been associated with major stressors on the family unit, often more so than among families with children with other developmental disabilities (e.g., Down syndrome; Brown et al. 2006). Research has consistently demonstrated a link between child behavior problems and decreased family well-being (e.g., Eisenhower and Blacher 2006; Turnbull et al. 2007), as well as between ASD and decreased family productivity (e.g., parental employment; Kogan et al. 2008; Montes and Halterman 2008). The rise in documented prevalence of ASD over the last couple of decades has dramatically increased the financial burden of caring for individuals with ASD. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: State-specific 1915(c) Medicaid Home and Community-Based Services waiver programs have become central in the provision of services specifically tailored to children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Using propensity score matching, 130 families receiving waiver services for a child with ASD were matched with and compared to 130 families waiting on the registry (i.e., control group). Results indicate that participants in the waiver group reported more improvement in independent living skills and family quality of life over the last year compared to those on the registry. More frequent intensive individual support services and therapeutic integration were statistically predictive of improvement in a variety of domains. The results suggest that the waiver program may be promising for improving child and family functioning.
    Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders 09/2014; 45(3). DOI:10.1007/s10803-014-2217-4 · 3.34 Impact Factor
  • Source
    • "Achieving and maintaining employment is difficult for mothers when children have special care needs (Baker and Drapela 2010; DeRigne 2012). A number of studies have documented associations between children's care needs and lowered maternal employment rates (DeRigne 2012), with more mothers working part-time (Gordon et al. 2007; Hedov et al. 2002) despite no weaker desire for work (Gordon et al. 2007) and with the more severe conditions most strongly related to lower employment rates (DeRigne 2012; Montes and Halterman 2008). Children's care needs have also been shown to hamper mothers' further education, curtail their plans for future employment and inhibit their entry into new jobs (Booth and Kelly 1999; Shearn and Todd 2000). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This prospective population-based study examined associations between children's behaviour problems and maternal employment. Information on children's behaviour problems at 3 years from 22,115 mothers employed before pregnancy and participating in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study were linked to national register data on employment and relevant social background factors, mothers' self-reported susceptibility to anxiety/depression and mother-reports of day-care attendance and fathers' income. Mothers reporting their child to have severe (>2 SD) internalizing or severe combined behaviour problems (5 %) had excess risk of leaving paid employment irrespective of other important characteristics generally associated with maternal employment (RR 1.24-1.31). The attributable risk percent ranged from 30.3 % (internalizing problems) to 32.4 % (combined problems). Externalizing behaviour problems were not uniquely associated with mothers leaving employment.
    Journal of Family and Economic Issues 10/2013; DOI:10.1007/s10834-013-9378-8
  • Source
    • "Despite variability in children with this diagnosis, there are similarities reported in the literature regarding parenting challenges. These include increased stress (Higgins, Bailey, & Pearce, 2005), financial constraints (Jarbrink, Fombonne, & Knapp, 2003), increased caretaking (Abelson, 1999; Freedman, Litchfield & Warfield, 1995; Jinnah & Stoneman, 2008; Montes & Halterman, 2008), hidden social costs (Siklos & Kerns, 2006), and dealing with challenging behaviors (Fox, Vaughn, Wyatte, & Dunlap, 2002; Worcester, Nesman, Rafaelle-Mendez & Keller, 2008). On top of the associated stressors of raising a child with an ASD comes the added parental responsibility of participating as a member of an educational team. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Both parents and school professionals (e.g. teachers, administrators, related service providers) are stakeholders in the Individualized Education Plan (IEP) process. Despite the fact that the inclusion of parents as full members in the process has been mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act since it was originally passed in as PL 94-142 in 1975, parents continue to report encountering barriers to equitable participation. To probe the barriers and facilitators to full team membership, we administered a mixed-methods survey study to parents of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 135) exploring the nature of their perceptions of collaboration. Common barriers to collaboration included opportunities to provide input, communication difficulties with school teams, and negative perceptions of school professionals. School administrator actions identified as facilitators of collaboration included attendance at IEP meetings, quick response to phone calls, and assistance with acquiring resources. Parents reported low levels of perceived disability-specific staff knowledge regarding ASD. Quantitative findings from this survey sample indicate that a large number of parents of children with ASD reported experiencing difficulty and/or were not included in the special education collaborative process. Implications and recommendations for school administrators and teams are discussed.
    School Mental Health 03/2013; 5(1). DOI:10.1007/s12310-012-9102-0
Show more