Obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease: Role of the metabolic syndrome and its components

Brooklyn Center for Health Disparities, SUNY Downstate Medical Center Brooklyn, NY 11203-2098, USA.
Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (Impact Factor: 3.05). 07/2008; 4(3):261-72.
Source: PubMed


Although obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease have common risk factors, epidemiologic studies show that sleep apnea increases risks for cardiovascular disease independently of individuals' demographic characteristics (i.e., age, sex, and race) or risk markers (i.e., smoking, alcohol, obesity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, atrial fibrillation, and hypertension). Individuals with severe sleep apnea are at increased risk for coronary artery disease, congestive heart failure, and stroke. The underlying mechanisms explaining associations between obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease are not entirely delineated. Several intermediary mechanisms might be involved including sustained sympathetic activation, intrathoracic pressure changes, and oxidative stress. Other abnormalities such as disorders in coagulation factors, endothelial damage, platelet activation, and increased inflammatory mediators might also play a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. Linkage between obstructive sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease is corroborated by evidence that treatment of sleep apnea with continuous positive airway pressure reduces systolic blood pressure, improves left ventricular systolic function, and diminishes platelet activation. Several systematic studies are necessary to explicate complex associations between sleep apnea and cardiovascular disease, which may be compounded by the involvement of diseases comprising the metabolic syndrome (i.e., central obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia). Large-scale, population-based studies testing causal models linking among sleep apnea, cardiovascular morbidity, and metabolic syndrome are needed.

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Available from: Clinton Douglas Brown, Nov 07, 2014
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    • "Repeated partial or complete collapse of the pharynx during sleep, which results in apnea or hypopnea associated with oxygen desaturation and arousal from sleep, is the most characteristic feature of OSAS [2]. The pathophysiology of OSAS is associated with activation of a number of neural, humoral, thrombotic, metabolic, and inflammatory disease mechanisms [3]. "
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    ABSTRACT: 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor (5-HTR) and 5-hydroxytryptamine transporter (5-HTT) gene polymorphisms have been reported to be associated with susceptibility to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The associations, derived from sporadic, inconsistent, small-sample-size studies, need to be evaluated further in a meta-analysis. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang, and Weipu. Eligible data were extracted from each included study. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using a fixed-effects or a random-effects model. The ORs and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the strength of the association between serotonergic gene polymorphisms and OSAS in the dominant and recessive models, as well as alleles. The Q statistic was used to evaluate homogeneity and Begg's test was used to assess publication bias. Eight studies were finally included in the meta-analysis of the association between 5-HTR2A gene variants (including 102T/C and 1438G/A), 5-HTT gene polymorphisms (including 5-HTT gene-linked promoter region (5-HTTLRP), and serotonin transporter intron 2 variable number tandem repeat (STin2VNTR) and OSAS risk. The G allele of 5-HTR2A 1438G/A, long 5-HTTLPR, and 10-tandem-repeats STin2VNTR were shown to increase OSAS susceptibility, with ORs of 2.33 (A vs. G, 95% CI 1.48-3.66), 1.24 (L vs. S, 95% CI: 1.04-1.49), and 2.87 (10 vs. 12, 95% CI: 1.38-5.97), respectively. These significant differences were determined in both dominant and recessive models. Of the 5-HTR2A 1438G/A gene polymorphism, the AA genotype increased the OSAS risk, with an OR of 4.21 (95% CI: 2.83-6.25) in a recessive model in male OSAS patients, but no significant association was found in females. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that polymorphisms in the 5-HTR2A 1438G/A and 5-HTT genes contributed to susceptibility to OSAS. The A allele of the 1438G/A gene polymorphism is predominantly distributed in males and increased the OSAS risk significantly.
    PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e86460. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0086460 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "There is evidence that OSA is associated with the metabolic syndrome [86]. In adults, OSA patients have higher rates of NAFLD [87], and patients with PCOS have higher rates of obstructive sleep apnea. "
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) was an adult disease until recently, but the rising rates of obesity around the world have resulted in a younger age at presentation. Children who have T2D have several comorbidities and complications reminiscent of adult diabetes, but these are appearing in teens instead of midlife. In this review, we discuss the clinical presentation and management options for youth with T2D. We discuss the elements of lifestyle intervention programs and allude to pharmacotherapeutic options used in the treatment of T2D youth. We also discuss comorbidities and complications seen in T2D in children and adolescents.
    International Journal of Pediatrics 10/2013; 2013:972034. DOI:10.1155/2013/972034
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    • "untreated sleep apnea among blacks [9]. Nonetheless, it is evident from recent findings that sleep restriction among blacks might put them at a greater risk for metabolic diseases associated with short sleep [12] [13] [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Evidence suggests that insufficient sleep duration is associated with an increased likelihood for hypertension. Both short (<6 hours) and long (>8 hour) sleep durations as well as hypertension are more prevalent among blacks than among whites. This study examined associations between sleep duration and hypertension, considering differential effects of race and ethnicity among black and white Americans. Methods. Data came from a cross-sectional household interview with 25,352 Americans (age range: 18-85 years). Results. Both white and black short sleepers had a greater likelihood of reporting hypertension than those who reported sleeping 6 to 8 hours. Unadjusted logistic regression analysis exploring the race/ethnicity interactions between insufficient sleep and hypertension indicated that black short (<6 hours) and long (>8 hours) sleepers were more likely to report hypertension than their white counterparts (OR = 1.34 and 1.37, resp.; P < 0.01). Significant interactions of insufficient sleep with race/ethnicity were observed even after adjusting to effects of age, sex, income, education, body mass index, alcohol use, smoking, emotional distress, diabetes, coronary heart disease, and stroke. Conclusion. Results suggest that the race/ethnicity interaction is a significant mediator in the relationship between insufficient sleep and likelihood of having a diagnosis of hypertension.
    International Journal of Hypertension 04/2013; 2013:436502. DOI:10.1155/2013/436502
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