Population Substructure and Control Selection in Genome-Wide Association Studies
ABSTRACT Determination of the relevance of both demanding classical epidemiologic criteria for control selection and robust handling of population stratification (PS) represents a major challenge in the design and analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Empirical data from two GWAS in European Americans of the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) project were used to evaluate the impact of PS in studies with different control selection strategies. In each of the two original case-control studies nested in corresponding prospective cohorts, a minor confounding effect due to PS (inflation factor lambda of 1.025 and 1.005) was observed. In contrast, when the control groups were exchanged to mimic a cost-effective but theoretically less desirable control selection strategy, the confounding effects were larger (lambda of 1.090 and 1.062). A panel of 12,898 autosomal SNPs common to both the Illumina and Affymetrix commercial platforms and with low local background linkage disequilibrium (pair-wise r(2)<0.004) was selected to infer population substructure with principal component analysis. A novel permutation procedure was developed for the correction of PS that identified a smaller set of principal components and achieved a better control of type I error (to lambda of 1.032 and 1.006, respectively) than currently used methods. The overlap between sets of SNPs in the bottom 5% of p-values based on the new test and the test without PS correction was about 80%, with the majority of discordant SNPs having both ranks close to the threshold. Thus, for the CGEMS GWAS of prostate and breast cancer conducted in European Americans, PS does not appear to be a major problem in well-designed studies. A study using suboptimal controls can have acceptable type I error when an effective strategy for the correction of PS is employed.
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ABSTRACT: Future progress in crop breeding requires a new emphasis in plant physiological phenotyping for specific, well-defined traits. Success in physiological phenotyping to identify parents for use in breeding efforts for improved cultivars has been achieved by employing a multi-tier screening approach with different levels of sophistication and trait resolution. Subsequently, cultivar development required an integrated mix of classical breeding approaches and one or more tiers of phenotyping to identify genotypes expressing the desired trait. The role of high throughput systems can be useful; here, we emphasize that this approach is likely to offer useful results at an initial tier of phenotyping and will need to be complemented with more directed tiers of phenotyping.Trends in Plant Science 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.tplants.2014.11.006 · 13.48 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Genetic variants located within the 12p13.33/RAD52 locus have been associated with lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). Here, within 5,947 UADT cancers and 7,789 controls from 9 different studies, we found rs10849605, a common intronic variant in RAD52, to be also associated with upper aerodigestive tract (UADT) squamous cell carcinoma cases (OR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.04-1.15, p = 6x10-4). We additionally identified rs10849605 as a RAD52 cis-eQTL inUADT(p = 1x10-3) and LUSC (p = 9x10-4) tumours, with the UADT/LUSC risk allele correlated with increased RAD52 expression levels. The 12p13.33 locus, encompassing rs10849605/RAD52, was identified as a significant somatic focal copy number amplification in UADT(n = 374, q-value = 0.075) and LUSC (n = 464, q-value = 0.007) tumors and correlated with higher RAD52 tumor expression levels (p = 6x10-48 and p = 3x10-29 in UADT and LUSC, respectively). In combination, these results implicate increased RAD52 expression in both genetic susceptibility and tumorigenesis of UADT and LUSC tumors.PLoS ONE 10(3):e0117639. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117639 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The precise etiology of rotator cuff disease is unknown, but prior evidence suggests a role for genetic factors. Variants of estrogen-related receptor-β (ESRRB) have been previously associated with rotator cuff disease. The purpose of the present study was to confirm the association between multiple candidate genes, including ESRRB, and rotator cuff disease in an independent set of patients with rotator cuff tear.Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery / American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons ... [et al.] 09/2014; 24(2). DOI:10.1016/j.jse.2014.06.052 · 2.37 Impact Factor