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Contribution of serum biomarkers to the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis.

Departamento de Inmunología, Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina y Odontología, Universidad del País Vasco, Apartado 699, E-48080 Bilbao, Vizcaya, Spain.
Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics (Impact Factor: 4.27). 06/2008; 8(3):315-25. DOI: 10.1586/14737159.8.3.315
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ABSTRACT Invasive candidiasis is the most important opportunistic fungal infection, causing high morbidity and mortality. Traditional methods of diagnosis, which include blood culture and biopsy, usually lack both sensitivity and specificity, or become positive late in the course of the infection. Therefore, new nonculture-based methods are being developed. In this review, we will discuss the most recent studies concerning the use of serum biomarkers in the diagnosis of invasive Candida infections.

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    • "Moreover, not only expression of Candida surface glycans reflected the fungus–host interactions, PAMP–PRR interactions, yeast–hyphae transition and stage of disease, but also the similar conditions have been established with protein serodiagnostically important antigens, identified as virulence-associated and/or hyphal-regulated as Als1, Als3, Hwp1, Hyr1, etc. (Mochon et al., 2010). Variety of conventional in vitro diagnostic tests based either on Candida cell wall glycans and proteins determination to provide antigenemia or to identify sera antibodies levels have been developed with various specificity and sensitivity (Laín et al., 2008). Concerning that β-D-glucan is expressed predominantly on the surface of yeast or budding cells and mannan is dominant in the hyphal morphoform, we have performed correlation analysis to compare both immunogens with CR3-RP that is expressed on the yeast as well as mycelial form of relevant Candida sp. "
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    • "tissue biopsy) require an aggressive approach not compatible with the critical condition of the patients, so the diagnosis is often based on clinical suspicion or is made too late. Additional markers have been proposed in early diagnosis (mannan, galactomannan , 1→3-beta-D-glucan antigen tests, specific antibodies or DNA fungal detection) but some of these still require further evaluation [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. Recently, the role of procalcitonin (PCT) as a surrogate marker of fungal infections has been examined. "
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