Article

Shedding of live vaccine virus, comparative safety, and influenza-specific antibody responses after administration of live attenuated and inactivated trivalent influenza vaccines to HIV-infected children

University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045-0508, United States.
Vaccine (Impact Factor: 3.49). 08/2008; 26(33):4210-7. DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2008.05.054
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT HIV-infected children (N=243), >or=5 to <18 years old, receiving stable antiretroviral therapy, were stratified by immunologic status and randomly assigned to receive intranasal live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) or intramuscular trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV). The safety profile after LAIV or TIV closely resembled the previously reported tolerability to these vaccines in children without HIV infection. Post-vaccination hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) antibody responses and shedding of LAIV virus were also similar, regardless of immunological stratum, to antibody responses and shedding previously reported for children without HIV infection. LAIV should be further evaluated for a role in immunizing HIV-infected children.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Sharon Nachman, Jan 16, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
82 Views
  • Source
    • "At delivery, umbilical cord venous blood was collected similarly, aliquoted, and stored at −80°C. In batches, hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays were performed for paired maternal/umbilical cord venous sera samples, as described previously [17]. Serum dilution started at 1∶10. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With the emergence of H1N1 pandemic (pH1N1) influenza, the CDC recommended that pregnant women be one of five initial target groups to receive the 2009 monovalent H1N1 vaccine, regardless of prior infection with this influenza strain. We sought to compare the immune response of pregnant women to H1N1 infection versus vaccination and to determine the extent of passive immunity conferred to the newborn. During the 2009-2010 influenza season, we enrolled a cohort of women who either had confirmed pH1N1 infection during pregnancy, did not have pH1N1 during pregnancy but were vaccinated against pH1N1, or did not have illness or vaccination. Maternal and umbilical cord venous blood samples were collected at delivery. Hemagglutination inhibition assays (HAI) for pH1N1 were performed. Data were analyzed using linear regression analyses. HAIs were performed for matched maternal/cord blood pairs for 16 women with confirmed pH1N1 infection, 14 women vaccinated against pH1N1, and 10 women without infection or vaccination. We found that pH1N1 vaccination and wild-type infection during pregnancy did not differ with respect to (1) HAI titers at delivery, (2) HAI antibody decay slopes over time, and (3) HAI titers in the cord blood. Vaccination against pH1N1 confers a similar HAI antibody response as compared to pH1N1 infection during pregnancy, both in quantity and quality. Illness or vaccination during pregnancy confers passive immunity to the newborn.
    PLoS ONE 03/2012; 7(3):e33048. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0033048 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is currently approved in the United States for the prevention of influenza in individuals 2-49 years of age. This article summarizes the available data describing the safety and efficacy of LAIV for the prevention of influenza in both children and adults. LAIV is administered as an intranasal spray and has been shown to provide high levels of efficacy against influenza illness caused by both matched and mismatched strains in children and adults. In studies comparing LAIV and inactivated influenza vaccine in children, LAIV recipients experienced 35-53% fewer cases of culture-confirmed influenza illness caused by antigenically matched strains. Protection through a second influenza season against antigenically matched strains has also been seen in children. In adults, definitive comparative studies of LAIV and inactivated vaccine have not been conducted and no statistically significant differences in efficacy have been demonstrated. The most common adverse reactions with LAIV include runny nose/nasal congestion in all age groups, fever >100 degrees F in children, and sore throat in adults. Formulations of LAIV against pandemic influenza strains, including H5N1, H9N2, and H7N3, are currently being tested in preclinical and phase I clinical studies.
    Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 12/2008; 2(6):193-202. DOI:10.1111/j.1750-2659.2008.00056.x · 1.90 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: HIV-infected individuals mount poor antibody responses to vaccines. We sought to identify the immunologic and virologic factors associated with a robust response to hepatitis A virus (HAV) vaccine in children on highly active antiretroviral treatment. One hundred fifty-two pediatric highly active antiretroviral treatment recipients immunized against HAV at weeks 0 and 24 had anti-HAV antibodies, CD4+, CD8+, and CD19+ cell percent assessed at weeks 0 and 32. Subgroups had HIV viremia, B- and T-cell subpopulations, and cell-mediated immunity (CMI) to HAV and other stimulants measured. Anti-HAV antibodies after complete vaccination correlated positively with CD4+ percent and CD19+ percent and negatively with viremia and CD8+ percent at baseline, but not at 32 weeks. There were no significant correlations between anti-HAV antibodies and B- or T-cell-naïve, memory, or activated subpopulations or non-HAV CMI. Compared with children who remained HAV-CMI-negative, those who mounted HAV-CMI in response to vaccination had higher anti-HAV antibody titers and CD19+ CD21+ CD27+ memory B cell percent at 32 weeks, but no other differences. In HIV-infected children on highly active antiretroviral treatment, control of viral replication and conserved or reconstituted CD19+ and CD4+ cell numbers and function determine a robust antibody response to anti-HAV primary immunization. Our data support a bidirectional B- and T-cell cooperation in the response to the HAV vaccine.
    JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes 08/2009; 52(1):17-24. DOI:10.1097/QAI.0b013e3181b011f6 · 4.39 Impact Factor
Show more