Endothelial dysfunction: from molecular mechanisms to measurement, clinical implications, and therapeutic opportunities.
ABSTRACT Endothelial dysfunction has been implicated as a key factor in the development of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases, but its definition and mechanisms vary greatly between different disease processes. This review combines evidence from cell-culture experiments, in vitro and in vivo animal models, and clinical studies to identify the variety of mechanisms involved in endothelial dysfunction in its broadest sense. Several prominent disease states, including hypertension, heart failure, and atherosclerosis, are used to illustrate the different manifestations of endothelial dysfunction and to establish its clinical implications in the context of the range of mechanisms involved in its development. The size of the literature relating to this subject precludes a comprehensive survey; this review aims to cover the key elements of endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular disease and to highlight the importance of the process across many different conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress, characterized by increased reactive oxygen species production and/or decreased antioxidant enzyme activity, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension. The identification of molecular markers corresponding to the oxidative stress status of hypertension may assist in the antioxidant therapy of hypertension. In the present study, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were analyzed as markers of hypertension responding to oxidative stress. The plasma SOD activity and mononitrogen oxides (NOx) concentration were measured, and the SOD3 Ala58Thr and eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphisms were genotyped in hypertensive patients and normotensive controls. Further association experiments were replicated in an extended population, including 343 hypertensive patients and 290 controls. The results demonstrated that no statistically significant differences in the total SOD activity and NOx concentration were identified between the hypertensive patients and controls. However, the plasma SOD activity levels in the SOD3 Ala/Ala homozygote carriers (80.51±27.68 U/ml) were significantly lower compared with the Thr allele carriers (92.18±16.37 U/ml; P=0.031). In addition, the plasma NOx concentration in the eNOS Glu/Glu homozygote carriers (129.66±59.15 μmol/l) was significantly lower compared with the Asp allele carriers (169.84± 55.18 μmol/l; P=0.010). Notably, the altered SOD activity levels and NOx concentration were in concordance in 56.3% of the 80 participants. Therefore, the concordance of decreased SOD activity and NOx concentration, combined with genotypes of SOD3 Ala/Ala and/or eNOS Glu/Glu in hypertensive patients, may be useful in directing the antioxidant therapy of hypertension.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 07/2014; 8(1):328-334. · 0.34 Impact Factor
- Revista medica de Chile 04/2012; 140(4):507-511. · 0.36 Impact Factor