Endothelial dysfunction: from molecular mechanisms to measurement, clinical implications, and therapeutic opportunities.
ABSTRACT Endothelial dysfunction has been implicated as a key factor in the development of a wide range of cardiovascular diseases, but its definition and mechanisms vary greatly between different disease processes. This review combines evidence from cell-culture experiments, in vitro and in vivo animal models, and clinical studies to identify the variety of mechanisms involved in endothelial dysfunction in its broadest sense. Several prominent disease states, including hypertension, heart failure, and atherosclerosis, are used to illustrate the different manifestations of endothelial dysfunction and to establish its clinical implications in the context of the range of mechanisms involved in its development. The size of the literature relating to this subject precludes a comprehensive survey; this review aims to cover the key elements of endothelial dysfunction in cardiovascular disease and to highlight the importance of the process across many different conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Abstract Context: Inhalation of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with acute pulmonary inflammation and impairments in cardiovascular function. In many regions, PM2.5 is largely derived from diesel exhaust (DE), and these pathophysiological effects may be due in part to oxidative stress resulting from DE inhalation. The antioxidant glutathione (GSH) is important in limiting oxidative stress-induced vascular dysfunction. The rate-limiting enzyme in GSH synthesis is glutamate cysteine ligase and polymorphisms in its catalytic and modifier subunits (GCLC and GCLM) have been shown to influence vascular function and risk of myocardial infarction in humans. Objective: We hypothesized that compromised de novo synthesis of GSH in Gclm(-)(/+) mice would result in increased sensitivity to DE-induced lung inflammation and vascular effects. Materials and methods: WT and Gclm(-)(/+) mice were exposed to DE via inhalation (300 μg/m(3)) for 6 h. Neutrophil influx into the lungs, plasma GSH redox potential, vascular reactivity of aortic rings and aortic nitric oxide (NO•) were measured. Results: DE inhalation resulted in mild bronchoalveolar neutrophil influx in both genotypes. DE-induced effects on plasma GSH oxidation and acetylcholine (ACh)-relaxation of aortic rings were only observed in Gclm(-)(/+) mice. Contrary to our hypothesis, DE exposure enhanced ACh-induced relaxation of aortic rings in Gclm(-)(/+) mice. Discussion and conclusion: These data support the hypothesis that genetic determinants of antioxidant capacity influence the biological effects of acute inhalation of DE. However, the acute effects of DE on the vasculature may be dependent on the location and types of vessels involved. Polymorphisms in GSH synthesis genes are common in humans and further investigations into these potential gene-environment interactions are warranted.Inhalation Toxicology 07/2013; DOI:10.3109/08958378.2013.801004 · 2.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the development of vascular disease and in the promotion of endothelial dysfunction via the reduction in bioavailable nitric oxide (NO()). Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide thiol antioxidant that is utilized by glutathione peroxidase (GPx) to scavenge reactive oxygen species such as hydrogen peroxide and phospholipid hydroperoxides. Relatively frequent single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the 5' promoters of the GSH synthesis genes GCLC and GCLM are associated with impaired vasomotor function, as measured by decreased acetylcholine-stimulated coronary artery dilation, and with increased risk of myocardial infarction. Although the influence of genetic knockdown of GPx on vascular function has been investigated in mice, no work to date has been published on the role of genetic knockdown of GSH synthesis genes on vascular reactivity. We therefore investigated the effects of targeted disruption of Gclm in mice and the subsequent depletion of GSH on vascular reactivity, NO() production, aortic nitrotyrosine protein modification, and whole-genome transcriptional responses as measured by DNA microarray. Gclm(-/+) and Gclm(-/-) mice had 72 and 12%, respectively, of wild-type (WT) aortic GSH content. Gclm(-/+) mice had a significant impairment in acetylcholine (ACh)-induced relaxation in aortic rings as well as increased aortic nitrotyrosine protein modification. Surprisingly, Gclm(-/-) aortas showed enhanced relaxation compared to Gclm(-/+) aortas, as well as increased NO() production. Although aortic rings from Gclm(-/-) mice had enhanced ACh relaxation, they had a significantly increased sensitivity to phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction. Alternatively, the PE response of Gclm(-/+) aortas was nearly identical to that of their WT littermates. To examine the role of NO() or other potential endothelium-derived factors in differentially regulating vasomotor activity, we incubated aortic rings with the NO() synthase inhibitor L-NAME or physically removed the endothelium before PE treatment. L-NAME treatment and endothelium removal enhanced PE-induced contraction in WT and Gclm(-/+) mice, but this effect was severely diminished in Gclm(-/-) mice, indicating a potentially unique role for GSH in mediating vessel contraction. Whole-genome assessment of aortic mRNA in Gclm(-/-) and WT mice revealed altered expression of genes within the canonical Ca(2+) signaling pathway, which may have a role in mediating these observed functional effects. These findings provide additional evidence that the de novo synthesis of GSH can influence vascular reactivity and provide insights regarding possible mechanisms by which SNPs within GCLM and GCLC influence the risk of developing vascular diseases in humans.Free Radical Biology and Medicine 07/2012; 53(6):1264-78. DOI:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2012.07.006 · 5.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The vascular complications of diabetes mellitus impose a huge burden on the management of this disease. The higher incidence of cardiovascular complications and the unfavorable prognosis among diabetic individuals who develop such complications have been correlated to the hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and associated endothelial dysfunction. Although antioxidants may be considered as effective therapeutic agents to relieve oxidative stress and protect the endothelium, recent clinical trials involving these agents have shown limited therapeutic efficacy in this regard. In the recent past experimental evidence suggest that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the endothelial cells might be an important contributor to diabetes-related vascular complications. The current paper contemplates the possibility of the involvement of ER stress in endothelial dysfunction and diabetes-associated vascular complications.Experimental Diabetes Research 01/2012; 2012:481840. DOI:10.1155/2012/481840 · 3.54 Impact Factor