Regulation of mesangial cell alpha-smooth muscle actin expression in 3-dimensional matrix by high glucose and growth factors.
ABSTRACT We postulated that alpha-smooth muscle actin expressed in primary cultured mesangial cells is down-regulated in 3-dimensional (D) culture and up-regulated by high glucose and growth factors.
Primary rat mesangial cells were growth-arrested in 5.6 mM (NG) or 30 mM (HG) glucose for 14 days in 3-D Matrigel. Alpha-SM actin expression was analyzed by immunoblotting, real-time PCR and by alpha-SM actin promoter activity in response to 24 h stimulation with endothelin-1 (ET-1), angiotensin II (Ang II) or HG.
Alpha-SM actin mRNA, protein and promoter activity were reduced to significantly lower levels in 3-D cells compared to cells in 2-D. Up-regulation of alpha-SM expression was stimulated by ET-1, Ang II and HG. Specific inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC)-alpha, -beta or -zeta prevented alpha-SM upregulation in HG. In NG, PKC and ERK1/2 activation were required for alpha-SM actin accumulation in 3-D in response to ET-1 or Ang II. In HG, enhanced expression of alpha-SM actin in response to ET-1 or Ang II was unchanged during PKC or ERK1/2 inhibition.
Mesangial cells in 3-D express low levels of alpha-SM actin representing a more differentiated state. Regulation of alpha-SM actin expression is dependent on specific PKC isozyme and ERK1/2 signaling.
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ABSTRACT: Protein kinase C (PKC) is implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy. This study was designed to identify the expression of diacylglycerol (DAG)-sensitive PKC-alpha, -betaII, -delta, and -epsilon isoforms in normal and diabetic rat glomerular cells and to determine the effects of high glucose and insulin on PKC isoform cellular compartmentalization and PKC activity. Diabetic rats treated with or without insulin and normal rats were examined 2 and 4 weeks after streptozotocin/vehicle injection. Renal cortical tissue immunogold-labeled with anti-PKC-alpha, -betaII, -delta, or -epsilon antibody was visualized by electron microscopy. From isolated glomeruli, total cell lysate and cytosol and membrane fractions were immunoblotted with the same anti-PKC isoform antibodies. PKC activity in isolated glomeruli was measured by 32P-phosphorylation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF)-receptor substrate. Immunogold labeling revealed expression of the four PKC isoforms by glomerular visceral epithelial, endothelial, and mesangial cells of both normal and diabetic rats. Immunoblot analysis of the diabetic rat glomeruli at 2 weeks demonstrated a significant increase in membrane-associated PKC-alpha, -delta, and -epsilon and a significant decrease in membrane PKC-betaII content compared with normal, which were similar at 4 weeks. Insulin treatment normalized membrane PKC isoform contents and caused a significant decrease in the cytosol content of PKC-alpha, -betaII, and -delta and total cellular PKC-alpha compared with normal. Although PKC activity in the cells of diabetic rat glomeruli was increased by 20% compared with normal, the difference did not reach statistical significance. In insulin-treated diabetic rat glomeruli, PKC activity was significantly decreased compared with non-insulin-treated diabetic rat glomeruli. In conclusion, DAG-sensitive PKC-alpha, -betaII, -delta, and -epsilon isoforms are all found in the three major glomerular cell types in rats, and the expression, compartmentalization, and activity are modulated independently by high glucose and insulin.Diabetes 05/1998; 47(4):668-76. · 7.90 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Fibroblasts synthesize, organize, and maintain connective tissues during development and in response to injury and fibrotic disease. Studies on cells in three-dimensional collagen matrices have shown that fibroblasts switch between proliferative and quiescence phenotypes, depending upon whether matrices are attached or floating during matrix remodeling. Previous work showed that cell signaling through the ERK pathway was decreased in fibroblasts in floating matrices. In the current research, we extend the previous findings to show that serum stimulation of fibroblasts in floating matrices does not result in ERK translocation to the nucleus. In addition, there was decreased serum activation of upstream members of the ERK signaling pathway, MEK and Raf, even though Ras became GTP loaded. The findings suggest that quiescence of fibroblasts in floating collagen matrices may result from a defect in Ras coupling to its downstream effectors.Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2003; 278(23):20612-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Many human diseases occur when the precise regulation of cell growth (cell mass/size) and proliferation (rates of cell division) is compromised. This review highlights those human disorders that occur as a result of inappropriate cellular signal transduction through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a major pathway that coordinates proper cell growth and proliferation by regulating ribosomal biogenesis and protein translation. Recent studies reveal that the tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC)-1/2, PTEN, and LKB1 tumor suppressor proteins tightly control mTOR. Loss of these tumor suppressors leads to an array of hamartoma syndromes as a result of heightened mTOR signaling. Since mTOR plays a pivotal role in maintaining proper cell size and growth, dysregulation of mTOR signaling results in these benign tumor syndromes and an array of other human disorders.Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 03/2005; 16(1):29-37. · 6.20 Impact Factor