Article

Coordinated regulation of transcriptional repression by the RBP2 H3K4 demethylase and Polycomb-Repressive Complex 2.

Biotech Research and Innovation Centre (BRIC) and Centre for Epigenetics, University of Copenhagen, 2200 Copenhagen, Denmark.
Genes & Development (Impact Factor: 12.64). 06/2008; 22(10):1345-55. DOI: 10.1101/gad.470008
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Polycomb group (PcG) proteins regulate important cellular processes such as embryogenesis, cell proliferation, and stem cell self-renewal through the transcriptional repression of genes determining cell fate decisions. The Polycomb-Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) is highly conserved during evolution, and its intrinsic histone H3 Lys 27 (K27) trimethylation (me3) activity is essential for PcG-mediated transcriptional repression. Here, we show a functional interplay between the PRC2 complex and the H3K4me3 demethylase Rbp2 (Jarid1a) in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. By genome-wide location analysis we found that Rbp2 is associated with a large number of PcG target genes in mouse ES cells. We show that the PRC2 complex recruits Rbp2 to its target genes, and that this interaction is required for PRC2-mediated repressive activity during ES cell differentiation. Taken together, these results demonstrate an elegant mechanism for repression of developmental genes by the coordinated regulation of epigenetic marks involved in repression and activation of transcription.

Full-text

Available from: Karl Agger, May 12, 2014
1 Follower
 · 
178 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The enzymes catalyzing lysine and arginine methylation of histones are essential for maintaining transcriptional programs and determining cell fate and identity. Until recently, histone methylation was regarded irreversible. However, within the last few years, several families of histone demethylases erasing methyl marks associated with gene repression or activation have been identified, underscoring the plasticity and dynamic nature of histone methylation. Recent discoveries have revealed that histone demethylases take part in large multiprotein complexes synergizing with histone deacetylases, histone methyltransferases, and nuclear receptors to control developmental and transcriptional programs. Here we review the emerging biochemical and biological functions of the histone demethylases and discuss their potential involvement in human diseases, including cancer.
    Genes & Development 06/2008; 22(9):1115-40. DOI:10.1101/gad.1652908 · 12.64 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pannexin-1 (Panx1) is a large-pore membrane channel involved in the release of ATP and other signaling mediators. Little is known about the expression and functional role of Panx1 in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the development of chronic neuropathic pain. In this study, we determined the epigenetic mechanism involved in increased Panx1 expression in the DRG after nerve injury. Spinal nerve ligation in rats significantly increased the mRNA and protein levels of Panx1 in the DRG, but not in the spinal cord. Immunocytochemical labeling showed that Panx1 was primarily expressed in a subset of medium and large DRG neurons in control rats and that nerve injury markedly increased the number of Panx1-immunoreactive DRG neurons. Nerve injury significantly increased the enrichment of two activating histone marks (H3K4me2 and H3K9ac) and decreased the occupancy of two repressive histone marks (H3K9me2 and H3K27me3) around the promoter region of Panx1 in the DRG. However, nerve injury had no effect on the DNA methylation level around the Panx1 promoter in the DRG. Furthermore, intrathecal injection of the Panx1 blockers or Panx1-specific siRNA significantly reduced pain hypersensitivity induced by nerve injury. In addition, siRNA knockdown of Panx1 expression in a DRG cell line significantly reduced caspase-1 release induced by neuronal depolarization. Our findings suggest that nerve injury increases Panx1 expression levels in the DRG through altered histone modifications. Panx1 upregulation contributes to the development of neuropathic pain and stimulation of inflammasome signaling. Copyright © 2015, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2015; DOI:10.1074/jbc.M115.650218 · 4.60 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The CAG repeat expansion in the Huntington's disease gene HTT extends a polyglutamine tract in mutant huntingtin that enhances its ability to facilitate polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2). To gain insight into this dominant gain of function, we mapped histone modifications genome-wide across an isogenic panel of mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) and neuronal progenitor cell (NPC) lines, comparing the effects of Htt null and different size Htt CAG mutations. We found that Htt is required in ESC for the proper deposition of histone H3K27me3 at a subset of ‘bivalent’ loci but in NPC is needed at ‘bivalent’ loci for both the proper maintenance and the appropriate removal of this mark. By contrast, Htt CAG size, though changing histone H3K27me3, is prominently associated with altered histone H3K4me3 at ‘active’ loci. The sets of ESC and NPC genes with altered histone marks delineated by the lack of huntingtin or the presence of mutant huntingtin, though distinct, are enriched in similar pathways with apoptosis specifically highlighted for the CAG mutation. Thus, the manner by which huntingtin function facilitates PRC2 may afford mutant huntingtin with multiple opportunities to impinge upon the broader machinery that orchestrates developmentally appropriate chromatin status.
    Human Molecular Genetics 01/2015; DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddv006 · 6.68 Impact Factor