Dermatologic events (DEs) in patients with cancer treated with lapatinib, a small-molecule dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR [ErbB1]) and HER2 (ErbB2), were characterized.
Nine clinical trials of metastatic cancer were included in this analysis. Lapatinib was administered at doses ranging from 1000 to 1500 mg/day as monotherapy (n=928) or in combination with paclitaxel or capecitabine (n=491). Patients not treated with lapatinib comprised the control group. Dermatologic events included hand-foot syndrome, rash, hair disorder, dry skin, pruritus/urticaria, skin disorder, skin infection, and nail disorder; DEs were characterized based on type, time to onset, severity, duration, and required interventions.
Fifty-eight percent of patients treated with lapatinib monotherapy, 74% treated with lapatinib plus paclitaxel or capecitabine, and 53% in the control group developed DEs. Among patients receiving lapatinib monotherapy, 55% experienced grade 1/2 DEs, 3% had grade 3 DEs, and no grade 4 DEs were observed. The most common DE was rash (43%); all other events occurred in <or=8% of patients. Most DEs developed between days 1 and 14 of starting treatment, with a median duration of 29 days. Three percent of DEs led to lapatinib dose reduction, 7% resulted in dose interruption, and 1% led to drug discontinuation.
Most DEs in lapatinib-treated patients present early, are mild to moderate in severity, and infrequently require dose modification or treatment interruption. Lapatinib-associated DEs appear to differ clinically from those associated with EGFR TKIs in both frequency and severity.
"In addition, through our research, patients carrying a high risk of dermatological toxicity by molecular target drugs could be identified by testing for STAT3 polymorphisms. And, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation increases the potential of dermatological side effects induced by molecular target drugs in clinical reports . STAT3 represents a critical regulator of keratinocytes in response to UVB irradiation . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors are associated with dermatological adverse events. The chief aim of this study was to examine the relation between the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) protein and the dermatological adverse events associated with the mTOR inhibitor everolimus.
We evaluated the effects of STAT3 activity and related signal transduction activities on everolimus-induced cell growth inhibition in the human keratinocyte HaCaT cell line via a WST-8 assay, and on signal transduction mechanisms involved in everolimus treatments via a western blot analysis. Apoptosis was evaluated using an imaging cytometric assay.
The cell growth inhibitory effects of everolimus were enhanced by stattic or STA-21, which are selective inhibitors of STAT3, treatment in HaCaT cells, although such effects were not observed in Caki-1 and HepG2 cells. Phosphorylation at tyrosine 705 of STAT3 was decreased by treatment with everolimus in a dose-dependent manner in HaCaT cells; in contrast, phosphorylation at serine 727 was not decreased by everolimus, but slightly increased. Furthermore, we found that pretreatment of p38 MAPK inhibitor and transfection with constitutively active form of STAT3 in HaCaT cells resisted the cytostatic activity of everolimus.
These findings suggest that STAT3 activity may be a biomarker of everolimus-induced dermatological toxicity.
Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research 10/2013; 32(1):83. DOI:10.1186/1756-9966-32-83 · 4.43 Impact Factor
"In an early study, the rash was independent of serum concentration, appeared between 2 and 66 days, generally resolved without interruption of treatment and seemed resistant to topical dermatological therapy.7 A pooled analysis of dermatological events from lapatinib at doses from 1000 to 1500 mg once daily in patients (n = 1419) from 9 clinical trials of metastatic cancer was also reported.37 Lapatinib was administered as monotherapy or in combination with capecitabine or paclitaxel. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lapatinib is a dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB1) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/ErbB2). EGFR and HER2 overexpression is associated with aggressive breast cancer with a high risk of disease relapse and death. Although lapatinib targets both EGFR and HER2, its effects on HER2 appear to be more critical. The role of lapatinib in the first-line setting remains unclear. A phase II first-line monotherapy lapatinib trial in HER2-therapy-naïve metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients confirms efficacy in HER2-positive tumors. Retrospective analysis of a phase III, first-line MBC study confirmed incremental benefit from lapatinib and paclitaxel over paclitaxel alone in HER2-positive disease. A prospective phase III study confirms superiority of letrozole and lapatinib over letrozole alone in HER2-positive MBC. Further investigation is required to define the potential first-line role for lapatinib. Particular strengths appear to be its manageable toxicity profile, lack of cross resistance with trastuzumab, activity in central nervous system disease, and synergy in combination with other anticancer therapy. Current limitations are lack of dosing recommendations from early trials, lack of predictive biomarkers beyond HER2 status, and lack of large prospective phase III trials for HER2-positive disease in the first-line setting. The role of lapatinib in HER2-negative disease is unclear.
Cancer Management and Research 01/2010; 2(1):13-25.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Deals with the production and the corrective maintenance planning control problem for failure-prone manufacturing systems. For a one machine one part type system, a suboptimal control policy is proposed and the required control parameters are determined using stochastic optimization techniques. Numerical examples are presented to show the usefulness of the proposed results.
Decision and Control, 2002, Proceedings of the 41st IEEE Conference on; 01/2003
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