Dietary and lifestyle predictors of age at natural menopause and reproductive span in the Shanghai Women's Health Study

Department of Medicine, Vanderbilt Epidemiology Center, School of Medicine, Vanderbilt University and Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, Nashville, TN 37203-1738, USA.
Menopause (New York, N.Y.) (Impact Factor: 3.36). 07/2008; 15(5):924-33. DOI: 10.1097/gme.0b013e3181786adc
Source: PubMed


Modifiable factors predicting the onset of menopause, a transition with important implications for women's health, have not been fully characterized. We evaluated the impact of dietary, lifestyle and reproductive factors on age at natural menopause and reproductive span in Chinese women.
Study participants were Chinese women aged 40 to 70 who experienced natural menopause and participated in a population-based, prospective study, the Shanghai Women's Health Study (N = 33,054). Dietary intake at the baseline survey was assessed by food-frequency questionnaire. Regression (beta) coefficients, calculated by multivariable linear regression, were used to estimate the effects of dietary, lifestyle, and reproductive patterns on age at menopause and the number of reproductive years, adjusting for potential confounding factors.
Early menarche, younger age at first live birth, older age at last live birth, longer duration of breast-feeding, and higher parity were associated with longer reproductive years (Ptrend < 0.01 for all). Higher body mass index at age 20, mid-life weight gain, and leisure-time physical activity during adolescence and adulthood predicted later menopause and longer reproductive span (Ptrend < 0.01 for all). Total intake of calories, fruits, and protein was positively associated with later menopause (Ptrend < 0.05 for all) and longer reproductive span (Ptrend < 0.05), except for carbohydrates (Ptre(nd) = 0.06), and long-term tea consumption predicted longer reproductive span (Ptrend = 0.03). Vegetable, fat, soy, and fiber intakes did not significantly affect reproductive span or age at menopause. Smoking was inversely associated with both early age at menopause and shorter reproductive span (Ptrend < 0.01).
In addition to reproductive factors, intake of fruits and protein, smoking, tea consumption, lifetime patterns of physical activity, and weight gain influenced the onset of menopause and/or reproductive span in Chinese women.

Download full-text


Available from: Hui Cai,
18 Reads
    • "Alcohol consumption and its effect on the ANM has been evaluated in very few studies due to certain social and ethnic limitations. Moderate alcohol[282930] consumption delays ANM. Regular tea consumption also delays the ANM probably due to the antioxidant and nonsteroidal estrogenic effects of flavonoids that counteract the degenerative processes. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: A literature search was done using PubMed. The age at natural menopause (ANM) depends on various factors like genetic, environmental, socioeconomic, reproductive, dietary, and lifestyle of which some like nulliparity, vegetarian diet, smoking, high fat intake, cholesterol, and caffeine accelerates; while others like parity, prior use of oral contraceptive pills, and Japanese ethnicity delays the ANM. ANM is an important risk factor for long-term morbidity and mortality; and hence, the need to identify the modifiable risk factors like diet and lifestyle changes. Delayed menopause is associated with increased risk of endometrial and breast cancer, while early ANM enhances the risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. The correlation between diet and ANM has not been extensively studied; however, whatever studies have been done till now point towards role of high intake of total calories, fruits, and proteins in delaying the ANM, while high polyunsaturated fat intake accelerates it. The role of dietary soy, total fat, saturated fat, red meat, and dietary fiber in determining the ANM has been controversial and needs further studies to substantiate it. The lifestyle factors like current smoking and vigorous exercise have been significantly associated with early menopause, while moderate alcohol consumption delays the ANM. Large prospective studies are needed to study the association of ANM and other modifiable factors like passive smoking fish consumption, soy, and various types of tea. The knowledge of modifiable determinants of ANM can help in setting up menopausal clinics and initiating health programs specially in developing countries.
    03/2014; 5(1):3-5. DOI:10.4103/0976-7800.127779
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Present maintainability and testability CAE (computer-aided engineering) capabilities are virtually nonexistent. A few software programs are stand-alone and are not integrated software tools; they are independent analysis tools on independent PCs. The non-CAE analysis method are often nonrepeatable and therefore analysis results are often suspect. The author highlights several maintainability engineering analyses that are performed without the benefit of CAE software tools. CAE software tools are being developed commercially, primarily for design engineering. These tools are intended to allow the design engineer to expedite printed wiring board design, including schematic design, component placement, thermal analysis, and timing analysis. The payback for these types of design-engineering CAE software tools is reduced design time
    Reliability and Maintainability in Computer-Aided Engineering Workshop, 1988. R&M - CAE, 1988 Proceedings.; 10/1988
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The CAE (computer-aided engineering) capability for R&M (reliability and maintainability) engineering needs to be better integrated and more flexible to do the complete job. The tools must provide: multiphase capability (concept, trades, design, review, and data items); multiuser capability (systems, design, and R&M engineer); user-friendly man-machine interfaces (menus/windows and novice/expert mode); and integrated electronic interfaces (design analysis inputs, design documentation, supporting databases, and usable analysis outputs). It is suggested that, to make CAE work effectively, industry CAE users need to work with the CAE vendors to ensure that the vendors understand the real user environment and requirements. Clear definition and feedback must be provided to the tool developers. It is further argued that perhaps the most critical task for industry is to analyze, plan, and implement a design methodology that will effectively use CAE throughout the design team
    Reliability and Maintainability in Computer-Aided Engineering Workshop, 1988. R&M - CAE, 1988 Proceedings.; 10/1988
Show more