Discovering and improving novel peptide therapeutics.
ABSTRACT Peptides have a number of advantages over small molecules in terms of specificity and affinity for targets, and over antibodies in terms of size. However, sensitivity to serum and tissue proteases coupled with short serum half-life has resulted in few recombinant library derived peptides, making the transition from lead to drug on the market. Recently, a series of technologies have been developed to address both these issues: selection methodologies addressing protease resistance have been developed that when combined with methods such as pegylation antibody Fc attachment and binding to serum albumin look likely to finally turn therapeutic peptides into a widely accepted drug class.
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ABSTRACT: Plasma protein binding can be an effective means of improving the pharmacokinetic properties of otherwise short lived molecules. Using peptide phage display, we identified a series of peptides having the core sequence DICLPRWGCLW that specifically bind serum albumin from multiple species with high affinity. These peptides bind to albumin with 1:1 stoichiometry at a site distinct from known small molecule binding sites. Using surface plasmon resonance, the dissociation equilibrium constant of peptide SA21 (Ac-RLIEDICLPRWGCLWEDD-NH(2)) was determined to be 266 +/- 8, 320 +/- 22, and 467 +/- 47 nm for rat, rabbit, and human albumin, respectively. SA21 has an unusually long half-life of 2.3 h when injected by intravenous bolus into rabbits. A related sequence, fused to the anti-tissue factor Fab of D3H44 (Presta, L., Sims, P., Meng, Y. G., Moran, P., Bullens, S., Bunting, S., Schoenfeld, J., Lowe, D., Lai, J., Rancatore, P., Iverson, M., Lim, A., Chisholm, V., Kelley, R. F., Riederer, M., and Kirchhofer, D. (2001) Thromb. Haemost. 85, 379-389), enabled the Fab to bind albumin with similar affinity to that of SA21 while retaining the ability of the Fab to bind tissue factor. This interaction with albumin resulted in reduced in vivo clearance of 25- and 58-fold in mice and rabbits, respectively, when compared with the wild-type D3H44 Fab. The half-life was extended 37-fold to 32.4 h in rabbits and 26-fold to 10.4 h in mice, achieving 25-43% of the albumin half-life in these animals. These half-lives exceed those of a Fab'(2) and are comparable with those seen for polyethylene glycol-conjugated Fab molecules, immunoadhesins, and albumin fusions, suggesting a novel and generic method for improving the pharmacokinetic properties of rapidly cleared proteins.Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2002; 277(38):35035-43. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The protein and peptide therapeutics have become an important class of drugs due to advancement in molecular biology and recombinant technology. There are more than 100 biopharmaceutical products approved and generating revenue of more than 56 billion US dollars. A safe, effective and patient friendly delivery of these agents is the key to commercial success. Currently, most of therapeutic proteins are administered by the parenteral route which has many drawbacks. Various delivery strategies and specialized companies have evolved over the past few years to improve delivery of proteins and peptides. Polymeric depot and PEGylation technologies have overcome some of the issues associated with parenteral delivery. A considerable research has been focused on non-invasive routes such as pulmonary, per oral and transdermal for delivery of proteins and peptides, in order to increase patient compliance yet their delivery via non-invasive routes remains challenge due to their poor absorption and enzymatic instability. Pulmonary route has shown some success evidenced by recent FDA approval of inhalable insulin. Development of an oral dosage form for protein therapeutics is still the most desirable one but with greater challenge. This review presents the issues of delivery of proteins and peptides, current and potential formulation technologies to improve delivery and current market trends.Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology 09/2006; 7(4):261-76. · 2.69 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chronic immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) is characterised by accelerated platelet destruction and decreased platelet production. Short-term administration of the thrombopoiesis-stimulating protein, romiplostim, has been shown to increase platelet counts in most patients with chronic ITP. We assessed the long-term administration of romiplostim in splenectomised and non-splenectomised patients with ITP. In two parallel trials, 63 splenectomised and 62 non-splenectomised patients with ITP and a mean of three platelet counts 30x10(9)/L or less were randomly assigned 2:1 to subcutaneous injections of romiplostim (n=42 in splenectomised study and n=41 in non-splenectomised study) or placebo (n=21 in both studies) every week for 24 weeks. Doses of study drug were adjusted to maintain platelet counts of 50x10(9)/L to 200x10(9)/L. The primary objectives were to assess the efficacy of romiplostim as measured by a durable platelet response (platelet count > or =50x10(9)/L during 6 or more of the last 8 weeks of treatment) and treatment safety. Analysis was per protocol. These studies are registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, numbers NCT00102323 and NCT00102336. A durable platelet response was achieved by 16 of 42 splenectomised patients given romplostim versus none of 21 given placebo (difference in proportion of patients responding 38% [95% CI 23.4-52.8], p=0.0013), and by 25 of 41 non-splenectomised patients given romplostim versus one of 21 given placebo (56% [38.7-73.7], p<0.0001). The overall platelet response rate (either durable or transient platelet response) was noted in 88% (36/41) of non-splenectomised and 79% (33/42) of splenectomised patients given romiplostim compared with 14% (three of 21) of non-splenectomised and no splenectomised patients given placebo (p<0.0001). Patients given romiplostim achieved platelet counts of 50x10(9)/L or more on a mean of 13.8 (SE 0.9) weeks (mean 12.3 [1.2] weeks in splenectomised group vs 15.2 [1.2] weeks in non-splenectomised group) compared with 0.8 (0.4) weeks for those given placebo (0.2 [0.1] weeks vs 1.3 [0.8] weeks). 87% (20/23) of patients given romiplostim (12/12 splenectomised and eight of 11 non-splenectomised patients) reduced or discontinued concurrent therapy compared with 38% (six of 16) of those given placebo (one of six splenectomised and five of ten non-splenectomised patients). Adverse events were much the same in patients given romiplostim and placebo. No antibodies against romiplostim or thrombopoietin were detected. Romiplostim was well tolerated, and increased and maintained platelet counts in splenectomised and non-splenectomised patients with ITP. Many patients were able to reduce or discontinue other ITP medications. Stimulation of platelet production by romiplostim may provide a new therapeutic option for patients with ITP.The Lancet 03/2008; 371(9610):395-403. · 39.06 Impact Factor