Article

Porcine T lymphocytes and NK cells--an update.

Institute of Immunology, Department of Pathobiology, University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, Veterinärplatz 1, 1210 Vienna, Austria.
Developmental and comparative immunology (Impact Factor: 3.29). 08/2008; 33(3):310-20. DOI: 10.1016/j.dci.2008.06.003
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Natural killer (NK) cells represent an important cell population of the innate immune system with the ability to attack spontaneously pathogen-infected and malignant body cells as well as to produce immune-regulatory cytokines. T lymphocytes belong to the adaptive immune system and perform a wide array of functions in immune regulation, inflammation and protective immune responses. In this review we summarize the current knowledge about the phenotype and functional characteristics of these two cell populations in swine. Porcine NK cells can be distinguished from T cells by the complex phenotype perforin+ CD3(-)CD4(-)CD5(-)CD6(-)CD8alpha+CD8beta(-)CD11b+CD16+. Investigations so far show that these cells have the capacity to lyse virus-infected target cells and respond to various regulatory cytokines. Such cytokines can induce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production in porcine NK cells, as well as the up-regulation of effector/activation molecules like perforin and CD25. Porcine T cells can be divided into a number of subpopulations, including a prominent fraction of T cells expressing T-cell receptors (TCR) with gammadelta-chains. Like TCR-alphabeta T cells, these TCR-gammadelta T cells can express CD8alpha and MHC class II, two molecules which in swine seem to be correlated with an activation status of T cells. Functional properties of these cells seem to include cytolytic activity as well as antigen presentation; however, both aspects require further investigation. Like in other species, TCR-alphabeta T cells in swine comprise MHC class-I restricted cytolytic T cells, T-helper cells and recently identified regulatory T cells. We summarize data on the phenotype and function of these cells including memory cell formation. Current knowledge suggests that MHC class-I restricted cytolytic T cells can be identified by the expression of CD8alphabeta heterodimers. T-helper cells express CD4 as well as other activation-related markers, including CD8alpha, MHC class II and CD45RC. Porcine regulatory T cells have a phenotype similar to that of mouse and humans: CD4+CD25+Foxp3+. First results indicate that these cells can suppress proliferation of other T cells and produce IL-10. Finally, the abundant expression of swine-specific activation markers CD8alpha and MHC class II on T cells and NK cells is discussed in more detail.

1 Bookmark
 · 
95 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Isospora suis, a common intestinal parasite of piglets, causes neonatal porcine coccidiosis, which results in reduced and uneven weaning weights and economic losses in pig production. Nevertheless, there are no detailed studies available on the immune response to I. suis. The aim of this study was to carry out phenotypical characterization of lymphocytes during primary infections on day 3 after birth. Infected and noninfected piglets were investigated between days 7 and 16 after birth. Lymphocytes from the blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes (flow cytometry) and of the jejunal mucosa (immunohistochemistry) were analysed. A decrease in T cells, especially with the phenotype of resting T-helper cells, T-cell receptor-gammadelta-T cells, and regulatory T cells in the blood, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes was noticeable. An increase in cells with the phenotype of natural killer cells in the spleen of infected animals was found, and the subset of TcR-gammadelta-T cells was strongly increased in the gut mucosa. Our findings suggest an accelerated migration of those cells into the gut. This study provides a strong indication for the involvement of adaptive and innate immune response mechanisms in the primary immune response to I. suis, especially of TcR-gammadelta-T cells as a linkage between innate and adaptive immunity.
    Parasite Immunology 04/2010; 32(4):232-44. · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Up to now for Swine Workshop Cluster 2 (SWC2) the orthologous human CD molecule was unknown. By use of the SWC2-specific mAb b30c7 and a retroviral cDNA expression library derived from stimulated porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells we could identify SWC2 as porcine CD27. Phenotypic analyses of lymphocytes isolated from blood and lymphatic organs revealed that mature T cells in thymus and T cells in the periphery with a naïve phenotype were CD27(+). However, within CD8α(+) T helper and CD8α(+) γδ T cells also CD27(-) cells were present, indicating a down-regulation after antigen contact in vivo. B cells lacked CD27 expression, whereas NK cells expressed intermediate levels. Furthermore, plate-bound mAb b30c7 showed a costimulatory capacity on CD3-activated T cells for proliferation, IFN-γ and TNF-α production. Hence, our data indicate an important role of porcine CD27 for T-cell differentiation and activation as described for humans and mice.
    Developmental and comparative immunology 07/2012; 38(2):321-31. · 3.29 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Immunogenicity of protein subunit vaccines may be dramatically improved by targeting them through antibodies specific to c-type lectin receptors (CLRs) of dendritic cells in mice, cattle, and primates. This novel vaccine development approach has not yet been explored in pigs or other species largely due to the lack of key reagents. In this study, we demonstrate that porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) antigen was targeted efficiently to dendritic cells through antibodies specific to a porcine CLR molecule DC-SIGN (dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin) in pigs. A recombinant PRRSV antigen (shGP45M) was constructed by fusing secretory-competent subunits of GP4, GP5 and M proteins derived from genetically-shuffled strains of PRRSV. In vaccinated pigs, when the PRRSV shGP45M antigen was delivered through a recombinant mouse-porcine chimeric antibody specific to the porcine DC-SIGN (pDC-SIGN) neck domain, porcine dendritic cells rapidly internalized them in vitro and induced higher numbers of antigen-specific interferon-γ producing CD4T cells compared to the pigs receiving non-targeted PRRSV shGP45M antigen. The pDC-SIGN targeting of recombinant antigen subunits may serve as an alternative or complementary strategy to existing vaccines to improve protective immunity against PRRSV by inducing efficient T cell responses.
    Vaccine. 01/2014;

Full-text

View
3 Downloads
Available from
Jul 23, 2014