Porcine T lymphocytes and NK cells--an update.
ABSTRACT Natural killer (NK) cells represent an important cell population of the innate immune system with the ability to attack spontaneously pathogen-infected and malignant body cells as well as to produce immune-regulatory cytokines. T lymphocytes belong to the adaptive immune system and perform a wide array of functions in immune regulation, inflammation and protective immune responses. In this review we summarize the current knowledge about the phenotype and functional characteristics of these two cell populations in swine. Porcine NK cells can be distinguished from T cells by the complex phenotype perforin+ CD3(-)CD4(-)CD5(-)CD6(-)CD8alpha+CD8beta(-)CD11b+CD16+. Investigations so far show that these cells have the capacity to lyse virus-infected target cells and respond to various regulatory cytokines. Such cytokines can induce interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) production in porcine NK cells, as well as the up-regulation of effector/activation molecules like perforin and CD25. Porcine T cells can be divided into a number of subpopulations, including a prominent fraction of T cells expressing T-cell receptors (TCR) with gammadelta-chains. Like TCR-alphabeta T cells, these TCR-gammadelta T cells can express CD8alpha and MHC class II, two molecules which in swine seem to be correlated with an activation status of T cells. Functional properties of these cells seem to include cytolytic activity as well as antigen presentation; however, both aspects require further investigation. Like in other species, TCR-alphabeta T cells in swine comprise MHC class-I restricted cytolytic T cells, T-helper cells and recently identified regulatory T cells. We summarize data on the phenotype and function of these cells including memory cell formation. Current knowledge suggests that MHC class-I restricted cytolytic T cells can be identified by the expression of CD8alphabeta heterodimers. T-helper cells express CD4 as well as other activation-related markers, including CD8alpha, MHC class II and CD45RC. Porcine regulatory T cells have a phenotype similar to that of mouse and humans: CD4+CD25+Foxp3+. First results indicate that these cells can suppress proliferation of other T cells and produce IL-10. Finally, the abundant expression of swine-specific activation markers CD8alpha and MHC class II on T cells and NK cells is discussed in more detail.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Armin Saalmueller, Jul 23, 2014
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ABSTRACT: The immune system is one of the main toxicity targets of the T-2 toxin. In view of scant research data demonstrating the effect of T-2 on cellular and humoral responses in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT), this study set out to investigate the effects of chronic exposure to low doses of the T-2 toxin (200 microg T-2 toxin kg(-1) feed) on percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, CD4+/CD8+ double-positive T lymphocytes, CD21+ B cells, and IL-2, IFN-gamma, IL-4 and IL-10 mRNA expression levels in porcine ileal Peyer's patches. The investigated material comprised ileum sections sampled from piglets (aged 8-10 weeks, body weight of 15-18 kg) on days 14, 28 and 42 of the experiment. After 42 days of exposure to T-2, a significant drop in the quantity of the IL-10 product was observed (R = 0.94; S.E. 0.49-0.79; p < 0.001). A gradual decrease in the amount of IL-4 and IFN-gamma cytokine transcripts was found throughout the experiment, but the reported trend was not significant. On experimental days 14 and 42, a significant increase in the percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes was observed in comparison with the control (p = 0.04 and p = 0.05, respectively), whereas on day 28, a significant decrease in the percentage of the above subpopulation was noted (p = 0.00). The percentage of CD21+ B cells in the experimental group decreased steadily in comparison with the control, and the observed drop was significant on days 28 and 42 (p = 0.06 and p = 0.00, respectively). On days 14 and 28, the percentages of CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes were lower in the experimental animals than in the control group, and the drop reported on day 28 was statistically significant (p = 0.03).Polish journal of veterinary sciences 01/2013; 16(2):341-9. DOI:10.2478/pjvs-2013-0046 · 0.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Up to now for Swine Workshop Cluster 2 (SWC2) the orthologous human CD molecule was unknown. By use of the SWC2-specific mAb b30c7 and a retroviral cDNA expression library derived from stimulated porcine peripheral blood mononuclear cells we could identify SWC2 as porcine CD27. Phenotypic analyses of lymphocytes isolated from blood and lymphatic organs revealed that mature T cells in thymus and T cells in the periphery with a naïve phenotype were CD27(+). However, within CD8α(+) T helper and CD8α(+) γδ T cells also CD27(-) cells were present, indicating a down-regulation after antigen contact in vivo. B cells lacked CD27 expression, whereas NK cells expressed intermediate levels. Furthermore, plate-bound mAb b30c7 showed a costimulatory capacity on CD3-activated T cells for proliferation, IFN-γ and TNF-α production. Hence, our data indicate an important role of porcine CD27 for T-cell differentiation and activation as described for humans and mice.Developmental and comparative immunology 07/2012; 38(2):321-31. DOI:10.1016/j.dci.2012.06.011 · 3.71 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) is an economically important infectious disease of swine. Constant emergence of variant strains of PRRS virus (PPRSV) and virus-mediated immune evasion followed by viral persistence result in increased incidence and recurrence of PRRS in swine herds. Current live and killed PRRSV vaccines administered by a parenteral route are ineffective in inducing complete protection. Thus, new approaches in design and delivery of PRRSV vaccines are needed to reduce the disease burden of the swine industry. Induction of an effective mucosal immunity to several respiratory pathogens by direct delivery of a vaccine to mucosal sites has proven to be effective in a mouse model. However, there are challenges in eliciting mucosal immunity to PRRS due to our limited understanding of safe and potent mucosal adjuvants, which could potentiate the mucosal immune response to PRRSV. The purpose of this review is to discuss methods for induction of protective mucosal immune responses in the respiratory tract of pigs. The manuscript also discusses how PRRSV modulates innate, adaptive and immunoregulatory responses at both mucosal and systemic sites of infected and/or vaccinated pigs. This information may help in the design of innovative mucosal vaccines to elicit superior cross-protective immunity against divergent field strains of PRRSV.Animal Health Research Reviews 05/2012; 13(1):21-37. DOI:10.1017/S1466252312000023