Physical and computational analysis of the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis secreted proteome.
ABSTRACT Secretion of proteins is the most common approach to protein expression in Kluyveromyces lactis. A proteomic analysis was performed on spent fermentation medium following bioreactor propagation of a wild-type industrial strain to identify proteins naturally secreted by K. lactis cells. Multidimensional separations were conducted and RP online ESI-MS/MS analysis identified 81 secreted proteins. In addition, an in silico analysis predicted 178 K. lactis proteins to be secreted via the general secretory pathway (GSP). These two datasets were compared and approximately 70% of the K. lactis proteins detected in the culture medium possessed a GSP sequence. The detected proteins included those involved with cell wall structure and synthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, and proteolysis, a result that may have significant bearing on heterologous protein expression. Additionally, both the experimental and in silico datasets were compared to similar, previously published datasets for Candida albicans. With the methodology presented here, we provide the deepest penetration into a yeast secretome yet reported.
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ABSTRACT: Protein secretion is a fundamental process in all living cells. Proteins can either be secreted via the classical or non-classical pathways. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, gluconeogenic enzymes are in the extracellular fraction/periplasm when cells are grown in media containing low glucose. Following a transfer of cells to high glucose media, their levels in the extracellular fraction are reduced rapidly. We hypothesized that changes in the secretome were not restricted to gluconeogenic enzymes. The goal of the current study was to use a proteomic approach to identify extracellular proteins whose levels changed when cells were transferred from low to high glucose media. We performed two iTRAQ experiments and identified 347 proteins that were present in the extracellular fraction including metabolic enzymes, proteins involved in oxidative stress, protein folding, and proteins with unknown functions. Most of these proteins did not contain typical ER-Golgi signal sequences. Moreover, levels of many of these proteins decreased upon a transfer of cells from media containing low to glucose media. Using an extraction procedure and Western blotting, we confirmed that the metabolic enzymes (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 3-phosphoglycerate kinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate decarboxylase), proteins involved in oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin), and heat shock proteins (Ssa1p, Hsc82p, and Hsp104p) were in the extracellular fraction during growth in low glucose and that the levels of these extracellular proteins were reduced when cells were transferred to media containing high glucose. These proteins were associated with membranes in vesicle-enriched fraction. We also showed that small vesicles were present in the extracellular fraction in cells grown in low glucose. Following a transfer from low to high glucose media for 30 minutes, 98% of these vesicles disappeared from the extracellular fraction. Our data indicate that transferring cells from low to high glucose media induces a rapid decline in levels of a large number of extracellular proteins and the disappearance of small vesicles from the extracellular fraction. Therefore, we conclude that the secretome undergoes dynamic changes during transition from glucose-deficient to glucose-rich media. Most of these extracellular proteins do not contain typical ER signal sequences, suggesting that they are secreted via the non-classical pathway.Proteome Science 02/2014; 12(1):9. DOI:10.1186/1477-5956-12-9 · 1.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ashbya gossypii is a filamentous Saccharomycete used for the industrial production of riboflavin that has been recently explored as a host system for recombinant protein production. To gain insight into the protein secretory pathway of this biotechnologically relevant fungus, we undertook genome-wide analyses to explore its secretome and its transcriptional responses to protein secretion stress. A computational pipeline was used to predict the inventory of proteins putatively secreted by A. gossypii via the general secretory pathway. The proteins actually secreted by this fungus into the supernatants of submerged cultures in minimal and rich medium were mapped by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, revealing that most of the A. gossypii secreted proteins have an isoelectric point between 4 and 6, and a molecular mass above 25 kDa. These analyses together indicated that 1-4% of A. gossypii proteins are likely to be secreted, of which less than 33% are putative hydrolases. Furthermore, transcriptomic analyses carried out in A. gossypii cells under recombinant protein secretion conditions and dithiothreitol-induced secretion stress unexpectedly revealed that a conventional unfolded protein response (UPR) was not activated in any of the conditions, as the expression levels of several well-known UPR target genes (e.g. IRE1, KAR2, HAC1 and PDI1 homologs) remained unaffected. However, several other genes involved in protein unfolding, endoplasmatic reticulum-associated degradation, proteolysis, vesicle trafficking, vacuolar protein sorting, secretion and mRNA degradation were up-regulated by dithiothreitol-induced secretion stress. Conversely, the transcription of several genes encoding secretory proteins, such as components of the glycosylation pathway, was severely repressed by dithiothreitol CONCLUSIONS: This study provides the first insights into the secretion stress response of A. gossypii, as well as a basic understanding of its protein secretion potential, which is more similar to that of yeast than to that of other filamentous fungi. Contrary to what has been widely described for yeast and fungi, a conventional UPR was not observed in A. gossypii, but alternative protein quality control mechanisms enabled it to cope with secretion stress. These data will help provide strategies for improving heterologous protein secretion in A. gossypii.
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ABSTRACT: Bacteria play many important roles in animal digestive systems, including the provision of enzymes critical to digestion. Typically, complex communities of bacteria reside in the gut lumen in direct contact with the ingested materials they help to digest. Here, we demonstrate a previously undescribed digestive strategy in the wood-eating marine bivalve Bankia setacea, wherein digestive bacteria are housed in a location remote from the gut. These bivalves, commonly known as shipworms, lack a resident microbiota in the gut compartment where wood is digested but harbor endosymbiotic bacteria within specialized cells in their gills. We show that this comparatively simple bacterial community produces wood-degrading enzymes that are selectively translocated from gill to gut. These enzymes, which include just a small subset of the predicted wood-degrading enzymes encoded in the endosymbiont genomes, accumulate in the gut to the near exclusion of other endosymbiont-made proteins. This strategy of remote enzyme production provides the shipworm with a mechanism to capture liberated sugars from wood without competition from an endogenous gut microbiota. Because only those proteins required for wood digestion are translocated to the gut, this newly described system reveals which of many possible enzymes and enzyme combinations are minimally required for wood degradation. Thus, although it has historically had negative impacts on human welfare, the shipworm digestive process now has the potential to have a positive impact on industries that convert wood and other plant biomass to renewable fuels, fine chemicals, food, feeds, textiles, and paper products.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 11/2014; DOI:10.1073/pnas.1413110111 · 9.81 Impact Factor