The sucrose hydrolysis activity of dense spherical yeast flocs, cultivated on a sucrose medium in a continuous reactor with internal settler, is nearly proportional to the particle surface. From computer simulation, in good agreement with experimental determinations, the calculated sucrose penetration depth is in the range 0.2-0.3 mm, a dimension smaller than the usual diameter of strongly flocculating yeast particles. From specific gravity determinations, the flocs can be considered as homogeneous and cannot exhibit a fractal structure, reported in the literature for a number of microbial aggregates. However, the analysis of the sucrose hydrolysis rates reveals that the cell density may be lower in the outer layer of the flocs.
"On the other hand, larger flocs will have a lower volume fraction of primary particles. Due to the relation between the aggregation number and the yeast floc size that can be described according to the theory for fractals, the volume fraction decreases with increasing floc size (Davis and Hunt, 1986; Fontana et al., 1991; Logan and Wilkinson, 1991). As for the floc formation rate and the floc splitting rate, the surface erosion rate also depends on particle concentration. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Flocculation of yeast cells occurs during the fermentation of beer. Partway through the fermentation the cells become flocculent and start to form flocs. If the environmental conditions, such as medium composition and fluid velocities in the tank, are optimal, the flocs will grow in size large enough to settle. After settling of the main part of the yeast the green beer is left, containing only a small amount of yeast necessary for rest conversions during the next process step, the lagering. The physical process of flocculation is a dynamic equilibrium of floc formation and floc breakup resulting in a bimodal size distribution containing single cells and flocs. The floc size distribution and the single cell amount were measured under the different conditions that occur during full scale fermentation. Influences on flocculation such as floc strength, specific power input, and total number of yeast cells in suspension were studied. A flocculation model was developed, and the measured data used for validation. Yeast floc formation can be described with the collision theory assuming a constant collision efficiency. The breakup of flocs appears to occur mainly via two mechanisms, the splitting of flocs and the erosion of yeast cells from the floc surface. The splitting rate determines the average floc size and the erosion rate determines the number of single cells. Regarding the size of the flocs with respect to the scale of turbulence, only the viscous subrange needs to be considered. With the model, the floc size distribution and the number of single cells can be predicted at a certain point during the fermentation. For this, the bond strength between the cells, the fractal dimension of the yeast, the specific power input in the tank and the number of yeast cells that are in suspension in the tank have to be known. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Biotechnology and Bioengineering 03/1998; 57(3):330-41. DOI:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0290(19980205)57:33.0.CO;2-K · 4.13 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The hydraulic model of a gas lift bioreactor, during a continuous alcoholic fermentation by using a strongly flocculating yeast, is analysed. Sucrose at two different concentrations (50 and 100 g/l) was used as substrate and the dilution rate for all the experiments was 1 h–1. The biomass concentrations were between 85 and 110 g dry weight/1. A stimulus response technique was used to obtain the Residence Time Distribution curves, a pulse of a lactose solution being used as the tracer. Mixing time was determined by means of the response to a pulse of an acid tracer. These experiments were carried out by using an on-line data-acquisition system. The bioreactor behaviour is completely homogeneous, except for high substrate and biomass concentrations. A two parameters combined model is necessary, in this case, to fit the experimental data. Mixing times are very low, in the order of 10 seconds.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The capacity of certain yeast strains to flocculate is important to the brewing industry. So is the determination of the flocculation characteristics of a yeast strain. In this study we subdivided the flocculation characteristics into three phenomena. A proposal for the most suitable method to quantify each phenomenon is given. For this, four parameters (bond strength, floc size, settling rate and number of single cells) that serve as a measure to these phenomena have been studied. Next to this, attention is payed to the influence of environmental conditions (temperature, calcium concentration, pH and the hydrodynamic conditions during the test) on the result of the test. During this part of the study the flocculence of the yeast cells was constant, so the effect of the yeast on the results of the test is excluded. It turned out that the temperature of the medium and the hydrodynamic conditions during the test most strongly influence floc formation. Next to this, medium viscosity is important if the flocculation characteristics are quantified via settling experiments.
Journal- Institute of Brewing 09/1996; 102:333-342. DOI:10.1002/j.2050-0416.1996.tb00919.x · 1.24 Impact Factor
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