Structure and sucrose hydrolysis activity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae aggregates.
ABSTRACT The sucrose hydrolysis activity of dense spherical yeast flocs, cultivated on a sucrose medium in a continuous reactor with internal settler, is nearly proportional to the particle surface. From computer simulation, in good agreement with experimental determinations, the calculated sucrose penetration depth is in the range 0.2-0.3 mm, a dimension smaller than the usual diameter of strongly flocculating yeast particles. From specific gravity determinations, the flocs can be considered as homogeneous and cannot exhibit a fractal structure, reported in the literature for a number of microbial aggregates. However, the analysis of the sucrose hydrolysis rates reveals that the cell density may be lower in the outer layer of the flocs.
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ABSTRACT: The effect of ethanol on the activities of the key enzymes of the glycolytic pathway and on two membrane functions related with fermentation, the glucose uptake system, and proton extrusion rate are examined. The results indicate that ethanol, up to 2M, does not cause any change of the glucose uptake velocity nor any substantial change in the key glycolytic enzyme activities while the fermentation rate is reduced by about 50%. In a cell extract 3M ethanol as well as incubation of yeast cells with 4M ethanol caused a considerable decrease of pyruvate kinase and hexokinase activities. Phosphofructokinase remained unchanged even at higher ethanol concentrations. Transmembrane proton flow was found to be the most sensitive of the functions tested toward ethanol, and it could represent the first target of ethanol action on fermentation.Biotechnology and Bioengineering 08/1988; 32(3):374-8. · 3.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The fractal nature microbial aggregates is a function of the type of microorganism and mixing conditions used to develop aggregates. We determined fractal dimensions from length-projected area (D(2)) and length-number scaling (D(3)) relationships. Aggregates of Zoogloea ramigera developed in rotating test tubes were both surface and mass fractals, with fractal dimensions of D(2) = 1.69 +/- 0.11 and D(3)= 1.79 +/- 0.28 (+/-standard deviation), respectively. When we grew this bacteria in a bench-top fermentor, aggregates maintained their surface fractal characteristics (D(2) = 1.78 +/- 0.11) but lost their mass fractal characteristics (D(3) = 2.99 +/- 0.36). Yeast aggregates (Saccharomyces cerevisae) grown in rotating tests tubes had higher average fractal dimensions than bacterial aggregates grown under physically identical conditions, and were also considered fractal (D(2) = 1.92 +/- 0.08 and D(3) = 2.66 +/- 0.34). Aggregates porosity can be expressed in term of a fractal dimensions, but average porosities are higher than expected. The porosities of yeast aggregates (0.9250-0.9966) were similar to porosities of bacterial aggregates (0.9250-0.9966) cultured under the same physical conditions, although bacterial aggregates developed in the reactor had higher average porosities (0.9857-0.9980). These results suggest that that scaling relationships based on fractal geometry may be more useful than equations derived from Euclidean geometry for quantifying the effects of different fluid mechanical environments on aggregates morphology and characteristics such as density, porosity, and projected surface area.Biotechnology and Bioengineering 09/1991; 38(4):389-96. · 3.65 Impact Factor
- Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/1968; 243(7):1573-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor