Grape-seed procyanidins prevent low-grade inflammation by modulating cytokine expression in rats fed a high-fat diet.
ABSTRACT The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of procyanidin intake on the level of inflammatory mediators in rats fed a hyperlipidic diet, which are a model of low-grade inflammation as they show an altered cytokine production.
Male Zucker Fa/fa rats were randomly grouped to receive a low-fat (LF) diet, a high-fat (HF) diet or a high-fat diet supplemented with procyanidins from grape seed (HFPE) (3.45 mg/kg feed) for 19 weeks and were then euthanized. We determined biochemical parameters, C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6 levels in plasma. Adipose tissue depots and body weight were also determined. We assessed CRP, IL-6, TNF-alpha and adiponectin gene expression in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT).
As expected, rats fed the HF diet show an enhanced production of CRP. Our results demonstrate that the HFPE diet decreases rat plasma CRP levels but not IL-6 levels. The decrease in plasma CRP in HFPE rats is related to a down-regulation of CRP mRNA expression in the liver and mesenteric WAT. We have also shown a decrease in the expression of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-alpha and IL-6 in the mesenteric WAT. In contrast, adiponectin mRNA is increased in this tissue due to the procyanidin treatment. As previously reported, CRP plasma levels correlate positively with its expression in the mesenteric WAT, suggesting that procyanidin extract (PE) modulates CRP at the synthesis level. CRP plasma levels also correlate positively with body weight. As expected, body weight is associated with the adiposity index. Also, TNF-alpha expression and IL-6 expression have a strong positive correlation. In contrast, the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin correlates negatively with the expression of TNF-alpha and IL-6 in the mesenteric WAT.
These results suggest a beneficial effect of PE on low-grade inflammatory diseases, which may be associated with the inhibition of the proinflammatory molecules CRP, IL-6 and TNF-alpha and the enhanced production of the anti-inflammatory cytokine adiponectin. These findings provide a strong impetus to explore the effects of dietary polyphenols in reducing obesity-related adipokine dysregulation to manage cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors.
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ABSTRACT: Cisplatin (CP) is used as an antineoplastic drug in the clinic, but its nephrotoxicity limits its use. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) is a powerful antioxidant. In this study, we investigated whether GSPE can prevent CP-induced nephrotoxicity and explored the underlying mechanism. Male C57/BL6 mice were randomly divided into four groups: control group (N), CP group (C), receiving an intraperitoneal (ip) injection of 20 mg/kg CP, GSPE group (G), receiving an intragastric (ig) dose of 500 mg/kg GSPE, and CP+GSPE group (C+G), where ig administration of GSPE was performed 30 min prior to ip injection of CP, followed by an additional ig administration of GSPE 72 h later. Blood and kidney samples were collected 120 h after treatment. The pathological changes in the kidney were examined by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining, while the protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), phosphorylated‑extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) and caspase-12 were examined by western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. Apoptosis was examined by a terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick‑end labeling (TUNEL) assay. Compared to the CP group, the CP+GSPE group had a significant decrease in the level of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (Scr) and reduced renal index (RI) (P<0.05), and showed limited histopathological damage. The number of TUNEL-positive cells was significantly reduced in the CP+GSPE group compared to the CP group (P<0.05), and the protein expression of GRP78, p-ERK and caspase-12 was significantly reduced in the CP+GSPE group (P<0.05). We conclude that GSPE can protect the renal function from CP-induced nephrotoxicity and can attenuate the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress‑induced apoptosis via regulation of the caspase-12 pathway.Molecular Medicine Reports 01/2014; · 1.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress is a recognized factor in nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to inorganic arsenic (As). Grape seed extract (GSE) possesses antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to evaluate the beneficial effects of GSE against arsenic-induced renal injury. Healthy, male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to As in drinking water (30 ppm) with or without GSE (100 mg/kg) for 12 months. The serum proinflammatory cytokine levels and mRNA expression levels of fibrogenic markers in the renal tissues were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively. The protein expression levels of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) subunits, transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) and phosphorylated Smad2/3 (pSmad2/3) were assessed using western blot analysis. The results demonstrated that cotreatment with GSE significantly improved renal function, as demonstrated by the reductions in relative kidney weight (% of body weight) and blood urea nitrogen, and the increase in the creatinine clearance capacity. GSE attenuated the As-induced changes in the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-1β and the mRNA levels of TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and fibronectin (FN) in renal tissue. Furthermore, administration of GSE markedly reduced As-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and Nox activity, as well as the protein expression levels of the NADPH subunits (Nox2, p47phox and Nox4). In addition, GSE cotreatment was correlated with a significant reduction in TGF-β/Smad signaling, as demonstrated by the decreased protein levels of TGF-β1 and pSmad2/3 in renal tissue. This study indicated that GSE may be a useful agent for the prevention of nephrotoxicity induced by chronic exposure to As. GSE may exert its effects through the suppression of Nox and inhibition of TGF-β/Smad signaling activation.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 01/2014; 7(1):260-266. · 0.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mucositis is a serious disorder of the gastrointestinal tract that results from cancer chemotherapy. We investigated the effects of increasing grape seed extract doses on the severity of chemotherapy in a rat model and its coincident impact on chemotherapeutic effectiveness in colon cancer cells. Female Dark Agouti rats were gavaged with grape seed extract (400-1000 mg/kg) or water (day 3-11) and were injected intraperitoneally with 5-Fluorouracil (150 mg/kg) or saline (control) on day 9 to induce mucositis. Daily metabolic data were collected and rats were sacrificed on day 12. Intestinal tissues were collected for histological and myeloperoxidase analyses. Caco-2 cell viability was examined in response to grape seed extract in combination with 5-Fluorouracil by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) assay. Compared with 5-Fluorouracil controls, grape seed extract (400-1000 mg/kg) significantly decreased the histological damage score (P<0.05) in the jejunum. Grape seed extract (1000 mg/kg) increased jejunal crypt depth by 25% (P<0.05) in 5-Fluorouracil treated rats compared to 5-Fluorouracil controls, and attenuated the 5-Fluorouracil -induced reduction of mucosal thickness (25%, P<0.05). Grape seed extract (600 mg/kg) decreased myeloperoxidase activity by 55% (P<0.01) compared to 5-Fluorouracil controls. Grape seed extract was more effective at ameliorating 5-Fluorouracil induced intestinal injury, with effects most pronounced in the proximal jejunum. Grape seed extract (10-25 ug/mL) significantly enhanced the growth-inhibitory effects of 5-Fluorouracil by 26% (P<0.05) in Caco-2 cells and was more potent than 5-Fluorouracil at 50-100 µg/mL. Grape seed extract may represent a new therapeutic option to decrease the symptoms of intestinal mucositis while concurrently impacting on the viability of colon cancer cells.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85184. · 3.73 Impact Factor