"A number of case reports and pilot studies have been published recently, however representative, randomized, placebo controlled studies evaluating the efficacy and safety of biologicals in AD are still not available. Approaches resulting in reduced T cell activation using agents such as alefacept (fusion protein of lymphocyte function antigen (LFA)-3 (CD58) and immunoglobulin (Ig)G, rituximab (anti-CD20 antibody) and efalizumab (anti-CD11a antibody, no longer available) have been shown to be effective in selected patients with moderate to severe AD and were mentioned in guidelines [2,41-44]. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Difficult to control atopic dermatitis (AD) presents a therapeutic challenge and often requires combinations of topical and systemic treatment. Anti-inflammatory treatment of severe AD most commonly includes topical glucocorticosteroids and topical calcineurin antagonists used for exacerbation management and more recently for proactive therapy in selected cases. Topical corticosteroids remain the mainstay of therapy, the topical calcineurin inhibitors tacrolimus and pimecrolimus are preferred in certain locations. Systemic anti-inflammatory treatment is an option for severe refractory cases. Microbial colonization and superinfection contribute to disease exacerbation and thus justify additional antimicrobial / antiseptic treatment. Systemic antihistamines (H1) may relieve pruritus but do not have sufficient effect on eczema. Adjuvant therapy includes UV irradiation preferably of UVA1 wavelength. “Eczema school” educational programs have been proven to be helpful.
World Allergy Organization Journal 03/2013; 6(1). DOI:10.1186/1939-4551-6-6
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recent insights into the relevance of the epidermal barrier function and its interaction with components of the innate and adaptive immune responses in patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) give rise to a number of novel potential treatment options. In particular, the identification of loss-of-function mutations in the barrier protein filaggrin and of a diminished expression of certain antimicrobial peptides in AD skin stimulates new concepts to think beyond the T(H)1/T(H)2 paradigm. This review will focus on these most recent discoveries and will discuss new and corresponding proof-of-concept trials in patients with AD. It will further speculate on novel ways to restore the homeostasis among the 3 major components in AD skin suspected to be clinically relevant.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 12/2008; 122(6):1074-81. DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2008.09.042 · 11.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is the most common chronic inflammatory skin disease, affecting 10-20% of children and 2% of adults worldwide. Preventive treatment of AD consists of daily skin hydration and emollient therapy; but the majority of patients still require symptomatic treatment with topical corticosteroids and/or topical calcineurin inhibitors, both of which may be associated with potential long-term side effects. With increasing evidence supporting the role of skin barrier defects in the pathogenesis of AD, there is also a parallel increase in medications that claim to assist barrier repair. The current review discusses some exciting results with these medications, as well as the challenges that lie ahead of them. While barrier repair treatments offer some promise, there continues to be a need for safer anti-inflammatory medications. Some of these medications under investigation are phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, urocanic acid oxidation products and IL-4/IL-13 receptor blockers. The review also discusses anti-staphylococcal treatments including nanocrystalline silver cream, silver and antimicrobial-coated fabrics, and anti-itch treatments including mu-opiod receptor antagonists, chymase inhibitors and cannabinoid receptor agonists. These medications may become an integral part of AD therapy.
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