Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors induces long-term depression in the hippocampal CA1 region of adult rats in vitro.
ABSTRACT Previous studies have implicated that long-term depression (LTD) was developmentally regulated since LTD can be readily induced by low frequency stimulation (LFS) in acute hippocampal slices prepared from juvenile but not adult animals. Here, we have examined the LTD induced by LFS (1Hz, 900 pulses) paired with a certain pattern at the Schaffer collateral-CAl synapse in adult hippocampal slices. We found that, in the 90-day-old rat hippocampus, LTD could be induced reliably by LFS paired with stronger stimulus intensity than that used during baseline recording. However, this synaptic depression could be completely abolished by application of metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) antagonist (S)-amethyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (MCPG) which had no effect on that induced by the same protocol in the 16-day-old rat hippocampus. Furthermore, preincubation with group I mGluR antagonist, 2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)-pyridine (MPEP) and (S)-2-methyl-4-carboxyphenylglycine (LY367385), also completely prevented the LFS-induced LTD. In contrast, group II mGluR antagonist (2S)-a-ethylglutamic acid (EGLU), N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist APV and voltage-gated calcium channel antagonist nimodipine had no effect on the LFS-induced LTD. Taken together, these observations suggest that LFS paired with strong stimulus strength can efficiently induce group I mGluR-dependent LTD in the adult hippocampal CA1 region, proving insight into the functional significance of hippocampal mGluR-mediated LTD in learning and memory.
- SourceAvailable from: sciencedirect.com[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Two distinct forms of long-term depression (LTD), one dependent on the activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) and the other dependent on the activation of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), are shown to coexist in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells of juvenile (11-35 day-old) rats. Both forms were pathway specific and required membrane depolarization and a rise in postsynaptic Ca2+. mGluR-LTD, but not NMDAR-LTD, required the activation of T-type Ca2+ channels, group 1 mGluRs, and protein kinase C, while NMDAR-LTD, but not mGluR-LTD, required protein phosphatase activity. NMDAR-LTD was associated with a decrease in the size of quantal excitatory postsynaptic currents, whereas for mGluR-LTD there was no change in quantal size, but a large decrease in the frequency of events. NMDAR-LTD, but not mGluR-LTD, reversed NMDAR-dependent long-term potentiation, and NMDAR-LTD was unaffected by prior saturation of mGluR-LTD. These findings indicate that NMDAR-LTD and mGluR-LTD are mechanistically distinct forms of synaptic plasticity.Neuron 07/1997; 18(6):969-82. · 15.77 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Two forms of long-term depression (LTD) of excitatory synaptic transmission have been identified in the mammalian CNS, which are induced by the synaptic activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors, respectively. The mGlu receptor-dependent form of LTD can be activated by application of 3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), a group I selective mGlu receptor agonist. DHPG-induced LTD is increasingly being used to investigate the mechanisms of mGlu receptor-dependent LTD. However, recent experiments have argued for both a pre- and postsynaptic locus of expression of DHPG-induced LTD. In the present study we report that DHPG-induced LTD is not associated with changes in the sensitivity of CA1 neurons to bath applied AMPA. Furthermore, in contrast to homosynaptic LTD, DHPG-induced LTD is also not associated with changes in sensitivity to focally uncaged L-glutamate. These data do not support the notion that DHPG-induced LTD requires a modification of AMPA receptors, such as their internalisation, but are compatible with a presynaptic mechanism of expression.The Journal of Physiology 02/2003; 546(Pt 2):455-60. · 4.38 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: D-Serine, the endogenous coagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), is considered to be an important gliotransmitter, and is essential for the induction of long-term potentiation. However, less is known about the role of D-serine in another form of synaptic plasticity, long-term depression (LTD). In this study, we found that exogenous D-serine regulated LTD in the hippocampal CA1 region in a "bell-shaped" concentration-dependent manner through regulating the function of NMDARs in the same manner, whereas endogenous D-serine was activity-dependently released and, in turn, contributed to the induction of LTD during low-frequency stimulation. Furthermore, impairing glial functions with sodium fluoroacetate (NaFAC) reduced the magnitude of LTD, which could be restored by exogenous D-serine, indicating that endogenous D-serine is mainly glia-derived during LTD induction. More interestingly, similar to the effects on LTD, exogenous D-serine enhanced spatial memory retrieval in the Morris water maze in a bell-shaped dose-dependent manner and rescued the NaFAC-induced impairment of memory retrieval, suggesting links between LTD and spatial memory retrieval. Our study thus provides direct evidence of the bell-shaped D-serine actions on hippocampal LTD and spatial memory retrieval, and underscores the importance of D-serine in synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory.Cerebral Cortex 03/2008; 18(10):2391-401. · 6.83 Impact Factor