Microarray expression profiling of Arabidopsis thaliana L. in response to allelochemicals identified in buckwheat. J Exp Bot

Biodiversity Division, National Institute for Agro-Environmental Sciences, 3-1-3 Kan-non-dai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, 305-8604 Japan.
Journal of Experimental Botany (Impact Factor: 5.53). 08/2008; 59(11):3099-109. DOI: 10.1093/jxb/ern168
Source: PubMed


Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) is an important annual plant cultivated for grain or as a cover crop in many countries, and it is also used for weed suppression in agro-economic systems through its release of allelochemicals. Little is known, however, concerning the mode of action of allelochemicals or plant defence response against them. Here, microarrays revealed 94, 85, and 28 genes with significantly higher expression after 6 h of exposure to the allelochemicals fagomine, gallic acid, and rutin, respectively, compared with controls. These induced genes fell into different functional categories, mainly: interaction with the environment; subcellular localization; protein with binding function or cofactor requirement; cell rescue; defence and virulence; and metabolism. Consistent with these results, plant response to allelochemicals was similar to that for pathogens (biotic stress) or herbicides (abiotic stress), which increase the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS; with consequent oxidative stress) in plant cells. The data indicate that allelochemicals might have relevant functions, at least in part, in the cross-talk between biotic and abiotic stress signalling because they generate ROS, which has been proposed as a key shared process between these two stress mechanisms.

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Available from: Anna Golisz, Oct 11, 2015
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    • "The mode of action of phenolic allelochemicals has been investigated by biochemical and genetic experiments. When Arabidopsis was exposed to gallic acid, the synthesis of several ROS-related gene products was increased (Golisz et al., 2008). Some phenolic acids, including gallic acid, caused a slight inhibition of phosphate uptake and a depolarization of the membrane potentials of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots. "
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    ABSTRACT: Common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) is well known for its weed-suppressive ability. This property is probably due to multiple factors such as resource competition, allelopathy and soil property modifications. A better understanding of the mechanisms of weed suppression could improve the development of new strategies for weed management using cover crops. In this review, the different factors that could be potentially responsible for weed suppression by common buckwheat are discussed. Special emphasis is put on the role of allelopathy.
    Environmental Control in Biology 01/2015; 53(1):1-6. DOI:10.2525/ecb.53.1
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    • "Ferreira and Aqüila (2000) demonstrated that allelochemicals could influence various aspects of seedling development and that possible effects of specific organs should also be evaluated. Golisz et al. (2008) observed that some allelochemicals induce an increased production of reactive oxygen species, which can cause death of root cells, thus reducing their growth. The factors of pH, electrical conductivity and osmotic potential of the tested extracts and fractions were also evaluated in this study because when these factors are altered, they can interfere with fundamental cellular processes, causing changes in seed germination and seedling development that could be misinterpreted as a possible phytotoxic effect. "
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    ABSTRACT: Among the numerous plant species occurring in the Cerrado, Ouratea spectabilis stands out because of the lack of species that grow beneath its canopy. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the phytotoxic potential of different extracts and fractions of the hydroethanolic extract from leaves of O. spectabilis through laboratory bioassays of the pre-and post-emergence of seeds of Lactuca sativa L., determination of the mitotic index in root cells of Allium cepa L., antioxidant activity and phytochemical screening of different classes present in extracts and ethyl acetate fractions. It was possible to verify that different extracts and ethyl acetate fractions of O. spectabilis interfered with germination rates, as reduced germination was observed when compared with the control. Similarly, growth and development was affected in lettuce seedlings, as shown by the reduced length of primary roots and hypocotyls compared with the control. In addition, the mitotic index was reduced in treated groups compared with the negative control. HPLC-PAD analysis for both the hydroethanolic extract and its ethyl acetate fraction, showed a predominance of flavonoid compounds belonging to the groups of isoflavones and catechins in ethyl acetate fractions of hydroethanolic extracts. Thus, it was concluded that this species synthesizes phytotoxic compounds capable of interfering in the stabilization and development of other species.
    South African Journal of Botany 11/2014; 95. DOI:10.1016/j.sajb.2014.10.002 · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    • "Although most plants produce allelochemicals, relatively few, like buckwheat (Golisz et al. 2008), C. maculosa (Bais et al. 2003), black walnut and Chenopodium murale L. or nettle-leaved goosefoot (Chenopodiaceae), have strong allelopathic properties. C. murale is a medicinal plant, widely used in folk medicine as a potherb, spinach, anthelmintic and laxative (Ibrahim et al. 2007), while some isolated flavonoids showed antihypertensive activity (Gohara and Elmazar 1997). "
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of Chenopodium murale root exudates, applied as phytotoxic medias (PMs), were tested on Arabidopsis thaliana and Triticum aestivum. The effects of PMs, where wild-type roots (K), hairy roots derived from roots (R clones) or from cotyledons (C clones) were cultured, were different. K medium suppressed Arabidopsis germination, while other PMs reduced root and leaf elongation and the number of rosette leaves. R media were more phytotoxic than C media. Treatment of Arabidopsis with R8 down-regulated expression of core cell cycle genes: cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) A1;1, four B-class CDKs, and cyclins CYCA3;1, CYCB2;4, CYCD4;2 and CYCH1 in root and shoot tips. Only CYCD2;1 transcript was elevated in treated shoots, but down-regulated in roots. Wheat Ta-CDC2 and Ta-CYCD2 genes showed the same expression profiles as their Arabidopsis counterparts, CDKA1;1 and CYCD2;1. PMs also caused increase of antioxidative enzyme activities in both plants. Exposure of Arabidopsis to PMs induced one catalase isoform, but repressed another, resulting in no net change of catalase activity. Wheat seedlings treated with PMs had catalase activity significantly elevated in all treatments, particularly in shoots. In both plants, PMs induced the activity of different peroxidase isozymes and total peroxidase activity. Both plants responded to phytotoxic treatments by induction of CuZn-superoxide dismutase. Thus, the phytotoxicity of C. murale root exudates is, at least partially, based on down-regulation of the cell cycle regulators and on generation of oxidative stress in the affected plants. We propose that C. murale root exudates should be considered as means of biological weed control.
    Plant Growth Regulation 01/2014; 75(1). DOI:10.1007/s10725-014-9959-z · 1.67 Impact Factor
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