The role of liver biopsy in the workup of liver dysfunction late after SCT: Is the role of iron overload underestimated?
ABSTRACT Abnormalities in liver function tests are common in hematopoietic SCT (HSCT) recipients. We retrospectively investigated the role of liver biopsy in determining the cause of elevated liver enzymes and its impact on the management of patients in the post-HSCT setting. A total of 24 consecutive liver biopsies were obtained from 20 patients from September 2003 to December 2007. A definite histopathologic diagnosis was obtained in 91.7% of the biopsies. Iron overload (IO) was found in 75% and GVHD in 54.2% of the patients. The initial clinical diagnosis of GVHD was confirmed in 56.5% and refuted in 43.5% of the allogeneic HSCT recipients. The median number of post transplant transfusions, percent transferrin saturation and ferritin levels were found to be higher in patients who had histologically proven hepatic IO (p1=0.007, p2=0.003 and p3=0.009, respectively). Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between serum ferritin levels and histological grade of iron in the hepatocytes. Our data suggest that hepatic IO is a frequent finding in the post-HSCT setting, which contributes to hepatic dysfunction and it should be considered in the differential diagnosis, particularly in patients with high serum ferritin levels.
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- "All the above mentioned data is based on ferritin as a surrogate marker of IO as the liver biopsy which is the gold standard of documenting IO, is usually not feasible in the turbulent context of HSCT. The role of ferritin as the sole marker of iron status on the other hand can be questioned as it also functions as an acute phase reactant (Lee & Jacobs, 2004; Pullarkat et al., 2008; Sucak et al., 2008; Kataoka et al., 2009; Storey et al., 2009; Alessandrino et al., 2010). We aimed to investigate the role of ferritin as a surrogate marker of IO. "
ABSTRACT: Pretransplantation iron overload (IO) is considered as a predictor of adverse outcome in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Peroxidative tissue injury caused by IO leads to progressive organ dysfunction. This is a retro-prospective study which explores the possible relationship between IO, oxidative stress and transplant outcome. Serum samples of 149 consecutive HSCT candidates were subjected to analysis of iron parameters, including nontransferrin bound iron (NTBI) and pro-oxidant/antioxidant status. Serum ferritin was found to be positively correlated with NTBI and negatively correlated with glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). An inverse correlation of NTBI with SOD, total antioxidant potential (TAP) and malonyldialdehide (MDA) was also demonstrated. An adverse impact of serum ferritin level on early posttransplant complications including pulmonary toxicity, fungal infections and sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) was shown. A significant impact of NTBI on +30 day (P = 0.027) and +100 day survival (P = 0.028) was shown in auto-transplanted patients. MDA levels had a significant impact on +30 day and +100 day survival in autologous (P = 0.047; P = 0.026) and allogeneic (P = 0.053; P = 0.059) groups. GPx (P = 0.016) and MDA (P = 0.021) were identified as independent prognostic parameters for overall survival in allo-transplanted patients. Pretransplantation IO might be a major contributor to adverse outcome in HSCT recipients through an impaired pro-oxidative/antioxidative homeostasis. The reversible nature of IO and oxidative stress suggests that early preventive strategies might have a potential to improve transplant outcome.International journal of laboratory hematology 02/2011; 33(4):414-23. DOI:10.1111/j.1751-553X.2011.01297.x · 1.87 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Iron overload, primarily related to RBC transfusions, is a relatively common complication in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients. There are emerging data from retrospective studies that iron overload can significantly increase the risk of nonrelapse mortality after allogeneic HSCT.The Korean journal of hematology 01/2009; 44(4). DOI:10.5045/kjh.2009.44.4.227
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ABSTRACT: Hepatic complications of transplant are a common cause of mortality. Although mild elevations of serum aminotransferase enzymes (aspartate and alanine (AST, ALT)) do not carry an adverse prognosis, this is not the case with severe hepatocellular injury. We reviewed 6225 consecutive recipients to determine the incidence and outcomes of severe hepatocellular injury (AST >1500 U/l) before day 100, which occurred in 88 patients. Causes were sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (SOS) (n = 46), hypoxic hepatitis (n = 33), varicella zoster virus (VZV) hepatitis (n = 4), drug-liver injury (n = 2) and unknown (n = 3). The incidence declined from 1.9% in the 1990s to 1.1% recently (owing to a fivefold decline in SOS and disappearance of VZV hepatitis). In hypoxic hepatitis, peak serum AST was 3545 U/l (range, 1380-25 246) within days of shock or prolonged hypoxemia; case fatality rate was 88%. In SOS, AST increases occurred 2-6 weeks after diagnosis; peak AST was 2252 U/l (range, 1437-8281); case fatality rate was 76%, with only serum bilirubin able to distinguish survivors (2.7 vs 11.3 mg/100 ml, P=0.0009). We conclude that circulatory insults (sinusoidal injury, hypotension and hypoxemia), and not infection, are the most common cause of severe hepatocellular injury, the frequency of which has declined because of a falling incidence of SOS and VZV hepatitis.Bone marrow transplantation 04/2009; 44(7):441-7. DOI:10.1038/bmt.2009.56 · 3.47 Impact Factor