Article

IKKα enhances human keratinocyte differentiation and determines the histological variant of epidermal squamous cell carcinomas

Department of Epithelial Biology, CIEMAT, Madrid, Spain.
Cell cycle (Georgetown, Tex.) (Impact Factor: 5.01). 08/2008; 7(13):2021-9. DOI: 10.4161/cc.7.13.6147
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the skin display different clinical features according to their epithelial differentiation grade and histological variant. Understanding the causes of these divergences might increase the curability of SCCs. Therefore, it is important to study the mechanisms of differentiation in keratinocytes. IKK (IkappaB kinase) alpha is an important protein for epidermal morphogenesis, although the pathways through which it exerts its function are unknown and controversy exists about its role in cancer development. We show that enhanced IKKalpha expression increases both early and terminal differentiation of human keratinocytes through an E-cadherin-dependent mechanism. Increased expression of IKKalpha in mouse tumorigenic epidermal cells leads to changes in the differentiation pattern of the resulting SCCs, originating a distinct histological variant that resembles the human acantholytic SCC (ASCC) variant. Although human ASCCs have an aggressive clinical course and high risk of metastasis, nothing is known about their etiology. We show that human ASCCs, as observed in the counterpart IKKalpha murine tumors, express high levels of both IKKalpha and E-cadherin, with absence of keratins K1 and K10, usually co-expressed with IKKalpha and E-cadherin. The tight correlation between the properties of both murine and human ASCC variants strongly suggests that IKKalpha is responsible for the development of this human SCC variant.

Full-text

Available from: Ana María Bravo del Moral, May 20, 2015
0 Followers
 · 
137 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have suggested that the action of IkappaB kinase alpha (IKKα) as a tumor suppressor is crucial in the development of skin carcinoma, but its role in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) remains unknown. We examined the IKKα expression in specimens from 157 NPC patients by immunohistochemistry and analyzed the effect of IKKα on prognosis. The functional significance of IKKα expression in NPC cell lines was investigated by IKKα overexpression or downregulation in in vitro studies. The in vitro assays revealed that the IKKα expression was negatively correlated with the invasiveness, migration, and angiogenesis of NPC cells. Overexpression or downregulation of IKKα could significantly repress or enhance the above characteristics, respectively, and these effects were independent of IKKα kinase or EBNA1. In 157 NPC cases, IKKα was differentially expressed in NPC tissues. High expression of IKKα was associated significantly with a high disease-free survival (DFS; P = 0.002) or overall survival (OS; P = 0.014). Multivariate analyses showed that the IKKα expression was an independent risk factor for DFS (HR, 2.302; P = 0.011) and OS (HR, 3.578; P = 0.006). Our findings indicated that IKKα plays a crucial role as a tumor suppressor that suppresses the invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis of NPC cells in vitro and correlates with the survival in NPC patients. Therefore, IKKα is not only a novel independent prognostic indicator in NPC, but also targeting IKKα expression may provide a potential therapeutic strategy for NPC. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Molecular Carcinogenesis 02/2015; 54(2). DOI:10.1002/mc.22087 · 4.77 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Gene knockout studies unexpectedly reveal a pivotal role for IkB kinase alpha (IKKa) in mouse embryonic skin development. Skin carcinogenesis experiments show that Ikka heterozygous mice are highly susceptible to chemical carcinogen or ultraviolet B light (UVB) induced benign and malignant skin tumors in comparison to wild-type mice. IKKa deletion mediated by keratin 5 (K5).Cre or K15.Cre in keratinocytes induces epidermal hyperplasia and spontaneous skin squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in Ikka floxed mice. On the other hand, transgenic mice overexpressing IKKa in the epidermis, under the control of a truncated loricrin promoter or K5 promoter, develop normal skin and show no defects in the formation of the epidermis and other epithelial organs, and the transgenic IKKa represses chemical carcinogen or UVB induced skin carcinogenesis. Moreover, IKKa deletion mediated by a mutation, which generates a stop codon in the Ikka gene, has been reported in a human autosomal recessive lethal syndrome. Downregulated IKKa and Ikka mutations and deletions are found in human skin SCCs. The collective evidence not only highlights the importance of IKKa in skin development, maintaining skin homeostasis, and preventing skin carcinogenesis, but also demonstrates that mouse models are extremely valuable tools for revealing the mechanisms underlying these biological events, leading our studies from bench side to bedside.
    03/2013; 5(1):170-83. DOI:10.3390/cancers5010170
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Acantholytic squamous cell carcinoma (Acantholytic SCC) are epithelial tumors characterized by a loss of cell adhesion between neoplastic keratinocytes. The mechanism underlying loss of cell-cell adhesion in these tumors is not understood.MethodsA retrospective analysis of acantholytic SCC (n = 17) and conventional SCC (n = 16, controls not showing acantholysis) was conducted using a set of desmosomal and adherens junction protein antibodies. Immunofluorescence microscopy was used to identify tumors with loss of adhesion protein expression.ResultsThe vast majority of acantholytic SCC (89%) showed focal loss of at least one desmosomal cell adhesion protein. Most interestingly, 65% of these tumors lost expression of two or more desmosomal proteins.Conclusions Loss of cell adhesion in acantholytic SCC is most likely linked to the focal loss of desmosomal protein expression, thus providing potential mechanistic insight into the patho-mechanism underlying this neoplasia.
    Journal of Cutaneous Pathology 09/2014; DOI:10.1111/cup.12390 · 1.56 Impact Factor