Primary and metastatic lung tumors in the pediatric population: A review and 25-year experience at a large children's hospital
ABSTRACT Primary lung neoplasms are rare in children, but they comprise a broad and interesting spectrum of lesions, some of which are familiar from other tissue sites, and some of which are unique to the pediatric lung.
To determine the relative incidence of primary and metastatic lung tumors in children and adolescents through a single-institution case series, to compare these data to reports in the medical literature, to discuss the clinical and pathologic features of primary tumors of the tracheobronchial tree and lung parenchyma in children, and to provide recommendations for handling pediatric lung cysts and tumors.
A 25-year single institutional experience with pediatric lung tumors, based on surgical biopsies and resections at Texas Children's Hospital from June 1982 to May 2007, an additional 40 lung tumors referred in consultation, and a review of the medical literature.
A total of 204 pediatric lung tumors were diagnosed at our institution, including 20 primary benign lesions (9.8%), 14 primary malignant lesions (6.9%), and 170 secondary lung lesions (83.3%). The ratio of primary benign to primary malignant to secondary malignant neoplasms is 1.4:1:11.6. The common types of lung cancer in adults are exceptional occurrences in the pediatric population. The most common primary lung malignancies in children are pleuropulmonary blastoma and carcinoid tumor. Other primary pediatric lung tumors include congenital peribronchial myofibroblastic tumor and other myofibroblastic lesions, sarcomas, carcinoma, and mesothelioma. Children with primary or acquired immunodeficiency are at risk for Epstein-Barr virus-related smooth muscle tumors, lymphoma, and lymphoproliferative disorders. Metastatic lung tumors are relatively common in children and also comprise a spectrum of neoplasia distinct from the adult population.
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ABSTRACT: Fetal lung interstitial tumor (FLIT) is a recently reported type of congenital lung lesion comprising solid and cystic components. The pathological features include unique interstitial mesenchyme-based cell proliferation, and differ from other neoplasms represented by pleuropulmonary blastoma or congenital peribronchial myofibroblastic tumor. FLIT is extremely rare and its gene expression profile has not yet been reported. We provide the first report of a novel chromosomal rearrangement resulting in α-2-macroglobulin (A2M) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene fusion in a patient with FLIT. The tumor cells contained a t(2;12)(p23;p13) and were mesenchymal in origin (e.g., inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors), suggesting the involvement of ALK in this case of FLIT. Break apart fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated chromosomal rearrangement at ALK 2p23. Using 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends, we further identified a novel transcript fusing exon 22 of A2M to exon 19 of ALK, which was confirmed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The corresponding chimeric gene was subsequently confirmed by sequencing, including the genomic break point between intron 22 and 18 of A2M and ALK, respectively. Discovery of A2M as a novel ALK fusion partner, together with the involvement of ALK, provides new insights into the pathogenesis of FLIT, and suggests the potential for new therapeutic strategies based on ALK inhibitors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Genes Chromosomes and Cancer 10/2014; 53(10). DOI:10.1002/gcc.22199 · 3.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Advances in antenatal imaging over the past 10 years have completely changed diagnosis and management of congenital lung disease, especially for congenital cystic adenomatoid malformations and sequestrations that are the two lesions most commonly detected. If early surgical excision is required for symptomatic cases, management of asymptomatic malformations is still discussed. The natural evolution and consequences of later complications of congenital lung malformations need to be compared with the benefits of elective resection and surgical morbidity. Complete regression of sequestrations or clinical and morphological improvement in congenital lobar emphysema pleads for clinical watching. On the other hand, resection is advocated for cystic malformations, because of an increased risk of acute respiratory distress, later infections and the possibility of malignant transformation. Even though the proportion of asymptomatic patients that go on to develop symptoms is hard to evaluate, an argument for elective surgery is a better outcome than emergency surgery. Further studies and long term follow-up are still needed to understand the natural history of congenital lung malformations precisely and help to define the optimal way in which to manage them.Revue des Maladies Respiratoires 02/2012; 29(2):328-36. DOI:10.1016/j.rmr.2011.06.018 · 0.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We aimed to review clinical characteristics, treatment results and outcome of pediatric patients with primary pleuropulmonary neoplasms. Medical records of 14 cases diagnosed between 1972-2009 were reviewed retrospectively. The male/female ratio was 5/9 and the mean age at diagnosis was 9.1 years (2-16). All but one were symptomatic, presenting with fever, coughing, dyspnea, or weight loss. One patient presented with hemoptysis, and another with digital clubbing. One mesothelioma was diagnosed incidentally. Some 8/14 patients were initially diagnosed as having pneumonia (median delay in diagnosis of 2.5 months). Diagnoses included pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB, n = 5), inflammatory pseudotumor (n = 3), mesothelioma (n = 2), mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC, n = 2), and carcinoid tumor (n = 2). Patients with PPB underwent surgery and received chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy. Two carcinoid tumor cases underwent surgery, one further received chemotherapy. Patients with mesothelioma were treated with chemotherapy. Inflammatory pseudotumors were all resected. Two cases with MEC received chemotherapy, one after surgery. 2/5 PPB patients survived without recurrence, 3 died; all carcinoid tumors and inflammatory pseudotumors were alive; 1/2 MEC patients was alive after 252 months, the other one was lost without disease; 1/2 mesothelioma patients was alive without disease, the other was died. For all cases, median follow-up was 30.5 months (0.6-252). Primary pleuropulmonary tumors are rare but clinical presentation can be varied and delay in diagnosis is common. Children with persistent coughs, recurrent pneumonia or hemoptysis should be considered as indicators for early diagnosis, very important because the prognosis of these tumors varies with histology and stage.Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2011; 12(2):543-7. · 2.51 Impact Factor