Paricalcitol Reduces Albuminuria and Inflammation in Chronic Kidney Disease: A Randomized Double-Blind Pilot Trial

Indiana University and VAMC, 1481 W 10th St, Indianapolis, IN 46202, USA.
Hypertension (Impact Factor: 6.48). 08/2008; 52(2):249-55. DOI: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.108.113159
Source: PubMed


Vitamin D receptor activation is associated with improved survival in patients with chronic kidney disease, but the mechanism of this benefit is unclear. To better understand the effects of vitamin D on endothelial function, blood pressure, albuminuria, and inflammation in patients with chronic kidney disease (2 patients stage 2, remaining stage 3), we conducted a pilot trial in 24 patients who were randomly allocated equally to 3 groups to receive 0, 1, or 2 microg of paricalcitol, a vitamin D analog, orally for 1 month. Placebo-corrected change in flow mediated dilatation with a 1-microg dose was 0.5% and 0.4% with a 2-microg dose (P>0.2). At 1 month, the treatment:baseline ratio of high sensitivity C-reactive protein was 1.5 (95% CI: 1.1 to 2.1; P=0.02) with placebo, 0.8 (95% CI: 0.3 to 1.9; P=0.62) with a 1-microg dose, and 0.5 (95% CI: 0.3 to 0.9; P=0. 03) with a 2-microg dose of paricalcitol. At 1 month, the treatment:baseline ratio of 24-hour albumin excretion rate was 1.35 (95% CI: 1.08 to 1.69; P=0.01) with placebo, 0.52 (95% CI: 0.40 to 0.69; P<0.001) with a 1-microg dose, and 0.54 (95% CI: 0.35 to 0.83; P=0. 01) with a 2-microg dose (P<0.001 for between group changes). No differences were observed in iothalamate clearance, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, or parathyroid hormone with treatment or on washout. Thus, paricalcitol-induced reduction in albuminuria and inflammation may be mediated independent of its effects on hemodynamics or parathyroid hormone suppression. Long-term randomized, controlled trials are required to confirm these benefits of vitamin D analogs.

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    • "There is evidence of associations between VDR variants and diabetes, which is a major CKD risk factor. Randomized controlled trials have provided convincing evidence that VDR agonists confer renoprotection in humans.91–94 "
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) has shown an increasing prevalence in the last century. CKD encompasses a poor prognosis related to a remarkable number of comorbidities, and many patients suffer from this disease progression. Once the factors linked with CKD evolution are distinguished, it will be possible to provide and enhance a more intensive treatment to high-risk patients. In this review, we focus on the emerging markers that might be predictive or related to CKD progression physiopathology as well as those related to a different pattern of response to treatment, such as inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin system (including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers; the vitamin D receptor agonist; salt sensitivity hypertension; and progressive kidney-disease markers with identified genetic polymorphisms). Candidate-gene association studies and genome-wide association studies have analyzed the genetic basis for common renal diseases, including CKD and related factors such as diabetes and hypertension. This review will, in brief, consider genotype-based pharmacotherapy, risk prediction, drug target recognition, and personalized treatments, and will mainly focus on findings in CKD patients. An improved understanding will smooth the progress of switching from classical clinical medicine to gene-based medicine.
    Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine 08/2014; 7(1):251-66. DOI:10.2147/PGPM.S52763
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    • "These findings are in conflict with some previous reports. In a placebo-controlled oral study in CKD stages 1–3 patients [53] and in two uncontrolled (intravenous and oral) studies in dialysis patients, a decrease in hs-Crp, IL-6 and TNF-α was found during paricalcitol treatment [54,55]. However, Moe et al. did not find any changes in TNF-α or IL-6 after 12 weeks of treatment with intravenous paricalcitol in a placebo-controlled study in hemodialysis patients with low PTH [56]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The risk of cardiovascular disease is tremendously high in dialysis patients. Dialysis patients treated with vitamin D analogs show decreased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with untreated patients. We examined the influence of two common vitamin D analogs, alfacalcidol and paricalcitol, on important cardiovascular biomarkers in hemodialysis patients. Anti-inflammatory effects and the influence on regulators of vascular calcification as well as markers of heart failure were examined. In 57 chronic hemodialysis patients enrolled in a randomized crossover trial comparing paricalcitol and alfacalcidol, we examined the changes in osteoprotegerin, fetuin-A, NT-proBNP, hs-Crp, IL-6 and TNF-α, during 16 weeks of treatment. NT-proBNP and osteoprotegerin increased comparably in the paricalcitol and alfacalcidol-treated groups. Fetuin-A increased significantly in the alfacalcidol-treated group compared with the paricalcitol-treated group (difference 32.84 μmol/l (95% C.I.; range 0.21–67.47)) during the first treatment period. No difference was found between the groups during the second treatment period, and IL-6, TNF-α and hs-Crp were unchanged in both treatment groups. Paricalcitol and alfacalcidol modulate regulators of vascular calcification. Alfacalcidol may increase the level of the calcification inhibitor fetuin-A. We did not find any anti-inflammatory effect or difference in changes of NT-proBNP. Trial registry NCT00469599 May 3 2007.
    BMC Nephrology 08/2014; 15(1):130. DOI:10.1186/1471-2369-15-130 · 1.69 Impact Factor
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    • "number of studies have shown positive therapeutic efficacy of vitamin D and analogs to reduce proteinuria [11] [12] [13]. Recently, a large randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial (the VITAL Study, í µí±› = 281) confirmed that paricalcitol was able to reduce albuminuria and blood pressure in patients with diabetic nephropathy who were already on renin-angiotensin system inhibitor therapy [14]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction. Acute kidney injury (AKI) pathogenesis is complex. Findings of gentamicin nephrotoxicity are seen in 30% of the AKI patients. Vitamin D has proven to be effective on renin expression, inflammatory response, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and atherosclerosis. We aimed to investigate the effect of vitamin D in an experimental rat model of gentamicin-induced AKI. Methods. Thirty nonuremic Wistar albino rats were divided into 3 groups: Control group, 1 mL saline intramuscular (im) daily; Genta group, gentamicin 100 mg/kg/day (im); Genta + vitamin D, gentamicin 100 mg/kg/day (im) in addition to 1 α , 25 (OH)2D3 0.4 mcg/kg/day subcutaneously for 8 days. Blood pressures and 24-hour urine were measured. Blood urea and creatinine levels and urine tubular injury markers were measured. Renal histology was semiquantitatively assessed. Results. Urea, creatinine and urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and kidney injury molecule-1 were all increased in Genta group indicating AKI model. Systolic blood pressure decreased, but urine volume and glutathione increased in Genta + Vit D group compared to Control group. Histological scores indicating tubular injury increased in Genta and Genta + Vit D groups. Conclusions. Vitamin D does not seem to be effective on histological findings although it has some beneficial effects via RAS system and a promising effect on antioxidant system.
    International Journal of Endocrinology 06/2013; 2013(6):313528. DOI:10.1155/2013/313528 · 1.95 Impact Factor
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