Adenylic dinucleotides produced by CD38 are negative endogenous modulators of platelet aggregation.
ABSTRACT Diadenosine 5',5'''-P1,P2-diphosphate (Ap2A) is one of the adenylic dinucleotides stored in platelet granules. Along with proaggregant ADP, it is released upon platelet activation and is known to stimulate myocyte proliferation. We have previously demonstrated synthesis of Ap2A and of two isomers thereof, called P18 and P24, from their high pressure liquid chromatography retention time, by the ADP-ribosyl cyclase CD38 in mammalian cells. Here we show that Ap2A and its isomers are present in resting human platelets and are released during thrombin-induced platelet activation. The three adenylic dinucleotides were identified by high pressure liquid chromatography through a comparison with the retention times and the absorption spectra of purified standards. Ap2A, P18, and P24 had no direct effect on platelet aggregation, but they inhibited platelet aggregation induced by physiological agonists (thrombin, ADP, and collagen), with mean IC50 values ranging between 5 and 15 microm. Moreover, the three dinucleotides did not modify the intracellular calcium concentration in resting platelets, whereas they significantly reduced the thrombin-induced intracellular calcium increase. Through binding to the purinergic receptor P2Y11, exogenously applied Ap2A, P18, and P24 increased the intracellular cAMP concentration and stimulated platelet production of nitric oxide, the most important endogenous antiaggregant. The presence of Ap2A, P18, and P24 in resting platelets and their release during thrombin-induced platelet activation at concentrations equal to or higher than the respective IC50 value on platelet aggregation suggest a role of these dinucleotides as endogenous negative modulators of aggregation.
- Methods in Enzymology 02/1974; 38:199-202. · 2.00 Impact Factor
- Methods in Enzymology 02/1996; 268:142-51. · 2.00 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Although activation of muscarinic cholinergic receptors on 1321N1 human astrocytoma cells results in a linear accumulation of inositol phosphates for up to 60 min in the presence of LiCl [Masters, Quinn & Brown (1985) Mol. Pharmacol. 27, 325-332], activation of H1-histamine receptors resulted in an increase in total inositol phosphate formation that was maintained for less than 5 min. The effects of stimulation of these two receptors on accumulation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3], inositol 1,3,4-trisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4)P3] and inositol 1,3,4,5-tetrakisphosphate [Ins(1,3,4,5)P4] were also examined. Incubation of 1321N1 cells with carbachol resulted in a rapid accumulation of all three inositol phosphates, reaching a maximum within 30 s; this elevated value was maintained for up to 60 min. The rate of disappearance of Ins(1,3,4)P3 from carbachol-treated cells after the addition of atropine paralleled or exceeded the rate of disappearance of Ins(1,4,5)P3. Although the initial rates of accumulation of Ins(1,4,5)P3, Ins(1,3,4)P3 and Ins(1,3,4,5)P4 in the presence of histamine were similar to that observed with carbachol, the amounts of these inositol phosphates had returned to control values within 5 min after the addition of histamine. The results indicate that, although the acute effects of muscarinic receptor and H1-histamine receptor stimulation on phosphoinositide hydrolysis are very similar, the histamine receptor is desensitized rapidly, whereas the muscarinic receptor is not. This effect on histamine-receptor function is apparently homologous, since preincubation of 1321N1 cells with histamine did not decrease the subsequent response to carbachol.Biochemical Journal 01/1987; 241(2):337-44. · 4.65 Impact Factor