Parenchymal cell TNF receptors contribute to inflammatory cell recruitment and respiratory failure in Pneumocystis carinii-induced pneumonia.

Department of Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY 14642, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 08/2008; 181(2):1409-19. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.181.2.1409
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The opportunistic organism Pneumocystis carinii (Pc) produces a life-threatening pneumonia (PcP) in patients with low CD4(+) T cell counts. Animal models of HIV-AIDS-related PcP indicate that development of severe disease is dependent on the presence of CD8(+) T cells and the TNF receptors (TNFR) TNFRsf1a and TNFRsf1b. To distinguish roles of parenchymal and hematopoietic cell TNF signaling in PcP-related lung injury, murine bone marrow transplant chimeras of wild-type, C57BL6/J, and TNFRsf1a/1b double-null origin were generated, CD4(+) T cell depleted, and inoculated with Pc. As expected, C57 --> C57 chimeras (donor marrow --> recipient) developed significant disease as assessed by weight loss, impaired pulmonary function (lung resistance and dynamic lung compliance), and inflammatory cell infiltration. In contrast, TNFRsf1a/1b(-/-) --> TNFRsf1a/1b(-/-) mice were relatively mildly affected despite carrying the greatest organism burden. Mice solely lacking parenchymal TNFRs (C57 --> TNFRsf1a/1b(-/-)) had milder disease than did C57 --> C57 mice. Both groups of mice with TNFR-deficient parenchymal cells had low bronchoalveolar lavage fluid total cell counts and fewer lavageable CD8(+) T cells than did C57 --> C57 mice, suggesting that parenchymal TNFR signaling contributes to PcP-related immunopathology through the recruitment of damaging immune cells. Interestingly, mice with wild-type parenchymal cells but TNFRsf1a/1b(-/-) hematopoietic cells (TNFRsf1a/1b(-/-) --> C57) displayed exacerbated disease characterized by increased MCP-1 and KC production in the lung and increased macrophage and lymphocyte numbers in the lavage, indicating a dysregulated immune response. This study supports a key role of parenchymal cell TNFRs in lung injury induced by Pc and a potential protective effect of receptors on radiosensitive, bone marrow-derived cells.

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