Glycemic control and the psychosocial benefits gained by patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus attending the diabetes camp
ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of diabetes camp on glycemic control, knowledge, and psychosocial benefits among patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Glycemic control among patients with infrequent and frequent self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was also compared.
During a 5-day camp, 60 patients were taught diabetes self-management education (DSME). After camp, patients were divided into two groups based on frequency of SMBG (<3 versus 3-4 times/day) and were followed up until 6-month post-camp. Patients' HbA1c levels and knowledge were assessed at baseline, 3- and 6-month post-camp. Patients' impressions towards camp were assessed.
In both SMBG groups, HbA1c levels decreased significantly at 3-month post-camp but did not sustain at 6-month monitoring. The patients with frequent SMBG had a lower mean HbA1c level. A significant improvement in knowledge was noted and sustained up to 6-month post-camp. The patients found diabetes camp of benefit and felt they could better cope with diabetes.
Although the effect of the diabetes camp on glycemic control was short-lived, an improvement in knowledge and a better attitude towards having diabetes were seen among participants.
The psychosocial benefits and knowledge gained by patients attending diabetes camp underline the importance of including a camp in a diabetes management plan. To improve patients' long-term glycemic control, a continuous education is required.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To examine the effects of insulin dose adjustments on rates of hypoglycaemia for school-aged children with Type 1 diabetes attending camp. Camp records for 256 children aged 7-15 years (55% on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion) attending a week-long residential summer camp were analysed. In anticipation of increased physical activity, basal insulin was decreased for all children on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and injection therapy by 10% upon arrival at camp. During the first day, children on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion received 11.1±6.3% less basal insulin than home doses, whereas children on injections decreased intermediate/long-acting insulin by 8.2±12.8%. Despite these decreases, 60% had at least one blood sugar level <70 mg/dl (3.9 mmol/l) during the first day. Children on continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion were more likely to have hypoglycaemia during the first day than those on injections. The number of episodes of hypoglycaemia increased with increasing camper age. Overall, children did not have further significant reductions in their total daily insulin dose by the last day of camp. However, on the last day, children had fewer episodes of hypoglycaemia than during the first day (0.7±0.9 vs. 1.1±1.2, P<0.001) and 51% had no low blood sugar levels that day. An empiric 10% reduction in basal insulin appears reasonable, as nearly equal numbers of children required dose increases as dose decreases as camp progressed. However, hypoglycaemia was still common in all age groups. Prospective studies characterizing individual variables are needed in order to facilitate tailored insulin dose adjustments that minimize glycaemic variability while optimizing control in the diabetes camp setting.Diabetic Medicine 12/2010; 28(4):480-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1464-5491.2010.03220.x
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: AIMS: The objective of this retrospective analysis of blood glucose values at a week-long residential summer camp for children with Type 1 diabetes was to provide experiential data to reinforce current summer camp guidelines and to determine if specific interventions implemented between 2009 and 2010 were effective in lowering average blood glucose among our campers without increasing risk of hypoglycaemia. METHODS: Blood glucose records were obtained from a random selection of children who attended six 1-week camp sessions, three each in 2009 and 2010. Five values per day: pre-meal breakfast, lunch and dinner, pre-evening snack and midnight values were analysed. RESULTS: A total of 13 267 blood glucose values were included. There were no severe hypoglycaemic episodes, seizures or need for full-dose glucagon or intravenous glucose in either year. Mean blood glucose was significantly lower in 2010 compared with 2009 (9.22 vs. 10.06 mmol/l, P < 0.001). Older age and camp year were associated with lower mean blood glucose, even when controlling for gender and duration of diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis is the largest so far conducted at a residential diabetes camp. Mean blood glucose levels were lower than other published studies. Although we cannot attribute a cause-and-effect relationship between our interventions and the improvement in blood glucose between 2009 and 2010, the use of pre-meal insulin bolus doses, low glycaemic meals and highlighting blood glucose levels in logs before being reviewed by endocrinologists are strongly encouraged. From this study we hope to establish benchmarks for comparison among camps and begin to identify best practices. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.Diabetic Medicine 11/2012; 30(3). DOI:10.1111/dme.12070
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Advances in medicine have reduced mortality among children with complex medical conditions, resulting in a growing number of young patients living with chronic illnesses. Despite an improved prognosis, these children experience significant psychosocial morbidity, such as depression and anxiety. Therapeutic summer recreation camps have been proposed as an intervention to enhance quality of life among these children. The purpose of this systematic review was to assess the psychosocial impact of camp for children with chronic illnesses. A systematic review of central databases was undertaken using key words, and a rating tool – the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies – was employed to rate methodological quality. 21 studies were included in this systematic review. Although overall methodological quality was weak, camp participation appeared to offer short-term psychosocial benefits on some parameters in children with a variety of chronic illnesses. There was some consistency in improved social outcomes, such as social interaction and acceptance. Based on the available evidence, it is premature to make robust claims regarding the psychosocial impact of camp as a therapeutic intervention. Theoretically informed camp programs, long-term follow-up, and incorporating camp-based messaging into routine hospital care, may enhance the utility of camp as a potential psychosocial intervention in paediatrics.Child Care Health and Development 11/2013; 40(5). DOI:10.1111/cch.12114