Comparison of HIV Risks among Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Heterosexual Homeless Youth

Department of Human Development and Family Science, The Ohio State University, 135 Campbell Hall, 1787 Neil Ave, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.
Journal of Youth and Adolescence (Impact Factor: 2.72). 02/2008; 37(4):456-464. DOI: 10.1007/s10964-007-9171-9
Source: PubMed


Youth who are homeless and gay, lesbian or bisexual (GLB) are one of the most disenfranchised and marginalized groups in our society. The purpose of this study is to examine and compare HIV in GLB homeless youth with their heterosexual counterparts. Participants for this study included 268 youth involved in treatment outcome studies with substance abusing homeless youth. Results suggest that GLB youth have greater HIV risks and that these risks are greater among bisexual females. In examining the predictors of sexual health risks, survival sex emerged as the most significant. Survival sex was high among females regardless of their sexual orientation and also among gay males. Implications of these findings suggest that a greater emphasis needs to be paid to preventive interventions among this population.

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    • "Childhood sexual abuse has been particularly emphasized as a risk factor for poor sexual health outcomes, including unprotected sex, high numbers of sexual partners, early age of first intercourse and sex trading (Johnson, Rew and Sternglanz 2006; Rotheram-Borus et al. 1996; Senn, Carey and Vanable 2008; Simons and Whitbeck 1991). lgb homeless youth, who report even higher rates of childhood sexual abuse compared to heterosexual homeless youth (Tyler and Cauce 2002), have been found to engage in sex trading at the same rate as heterosexual female homeless youth and at a higher rate than heterosexual male homeless youth (Gangamma et al. 2008). Childhood physical and emotional abuse are also correlates of sexual risk behaviours and poor sexual health among homeless youth, including sex trading (Greene, Ennett and Ringwalt 1999) and unintended pregnancy (Thompson et al. 2008). "

    Homelessness and Health in Canada, Edited by M. Guirguis-Younger, S. Hwang, R. McNeil, 01/2014: pages 35-56; University of Ottawa.
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    • "Shelters and other programs serving homeless LGBT youth [6] [7] provide condoms and HIV education tailored to their specific needs. The content of this socialization depends on assumptions about their condom use beliefs and norms, e.g., that their elevated risk comes from greater involvement in survival sex [8] and substance use [9]. This study is a " member check " of those assumptions, open-endedly inquiring into homeless LGBT youths' decision processes in hopes of identifying risky beliefs and norms not already addressed. "
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    ABSTRACT: Health behavior interventions based on Theory of Planned Behavior address participants' personally-held beliefs, perceived social norms, and control over the behavior. New data are always needed to "member check" participants' decision processes and inform interventions. This qualitative study investigates decision processes around condom use among 81 homeless LGBT youth ages 18-26. Findings indicated considerable endorsement of the conventional policy of always using condoms, promulgated in HIV prevention education targeting this population. Although some participants reported risk behavior in contexts of sex work, survival sex, casual encounters, open relationships, and substance use, most were aware of these risks and consistently safe in those situations. Condoms use boundaries became vulnerable in states of emotional need and negative mood. The only effect participants acknowledged of homelessness on condom use was indirect, through negative mood states. The most prevalent context of condom non-use was with long-term primary partners, a potential area of vulnerability because, of 13 participants for HIV or HCV, nine mentioned how they had been infected, and all nine believed they had acquired it from a primary partner. Findings imply programs should emphasize HIV risk potential within long-term romantic partnerships and mental health services to remediate negative mood states.
    AIDS research and treatment 05/2012; 2012:659853. DOI:10.1155/2012/659853
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    • "LGB youths who run away from home or are evicted from their homes by parents are overrepresented in the homeless youth population (e.g., Freeman & Hamilton, 2008; Gangamma et al., 2008; Rew et al., 2005; Whitbeck et al., 2004). This report examined potential reasons why some LGB youths experience homelessness while others do not. "
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    ABSTRACT: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) youths are over-represented in the homeless population. To examine why some LGB youths become homeless, this report compares homeless and non-homeless LGB youths. Of the 156 LGB youths, 48% reported ever being homeless (i.e., running away or being evicted from home). Results indicate that sexual orientation awareness and the initiation of sexual behavior occurred earlier in homeless than in non-homeless LGB youths and predated the first homeless episode. Substance use was more frequent and first occurred at an earlier age in homeless as compared to non-homeless LGB youths; however, substance use occurred subsequent to first homelessness. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with homelessness; and, early sexual orientation development was related to homelessness among youths without a history of sexual abuse. Findings suggest that interventions should help youths cope with their unfolding sexual orientation and work to prevent or address the consequences of sexual abuse.
    Children and Youth Services Review 01/2012; 34(1):186-193. DOI:10.1016/j.childyouth.2011.09.016 · 1.27 Impact Factor
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