Chemokine signaling to lymphocyte integrins under shear flow.
ABSTRACT The arrest of lymphocytes at target vascular sites depends on the rapid activation of their integrins by specialized endothelial chemokines. For over a decade, the mechanisms by which these chemokines trigger initial integrin-mediated adhesiveness and subsequent adhesion strengthening and crawling over endothelial surfaces have been dissected in vitro using flow chamber setups. These studies revealed that lymph node chemokines and subsets of inflammatory chemokines, collectively termed "arrest chemokines," can trigger the fastest measurable inside-out integrin activation events. Recent studies indicate that shear forces applied on lymphocytes are instrumental in these rapid activation processes. Different GTPases have been implicated in these activation processes. As these enzymes contribute to successive integrin activation and redistribution processes in both early and prolonged contacts there is a growing need to dissect in vitro and validate in vivo specific signaling routes involved in early and late integrin activation events controlling lymphocyte arrest and their subsequent crawling to sites of diapedesis. In this article, we present an overview of both early and recent shear-flow studies of integrin activation in lymphocytes and discuss future perspectives of integrin activation research in vitro and in vivo.
Article: GRK2-dependent S1PR1 desensitization is required for lymphocytes to overcome their attraction to blood.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Lymphocytes egress from lymphoid organs in response to sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P); minutes later they migrate from blood into tissue against the S1P gradient. The mechanisms facilitating cell movement against the gradient have not been defined. Here, we show that heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2) functions in down-regulation of S1P receptor-1 (S1PR1) on blood-exposed lymphocytes. T and B cell movement from blood into lymph nodes is reduced in the absence of GRK2 but is restored in S1P-deficient mice. In the spleen, B cell movement between the blood-rich marginal zone and follicles is disrupted by GRK2 deficiency and by mutation of an S1PR1 desensitization motif. Moreover, delivery of systemic antigen into follicles is impaired. Thus, GRK2-dependent S1PR1 desensitization allows lymphocytes to escape circulatory fluids and migrate into lymphoid tissues.Science 09/2011; 333(6051):1898-903. · 31.20 Impact Factor