To examine, using an Ecological Systems Theoretical framework, relationships between weight status and child, parent and community characteristics and risk factors among preschool children.
Cross-sectional data was collected from 140 children and their parents from 11 randomly selected preschools. Outcome variables included: motor development; perceived competence; objectively measured physical activity; time spent in active and quiet play; location and number of televisions; parental rules around physical activity and time spent watching television; availability of sport and physical activity programs; and parks and open spaces and access to footpaths.
Overweight children spent more time in quiet play and watching television and less time in active play and physical activity. Perceived competence and motor development were similar for both overweight and non-overweight children. Associations between weight status and several parent and community characteristics were not evident, except for access to footpaths. Overweight children had greater access to footpaths compared with non-overweight children (p=0.046).
The results reported here showed little difference between overweight and non-overweight children in relation to a variety of child, parent and community variables. However, for some characteristics, differences in older children have been reported. Longitudinal studies are required to confirm when these characteristics begin to differ, what effects these differences have on behaviour and weight-status, and therefore when targeted treatment should be provided during a child's development.
"Children's growth and development can be indicators of health as well as of the quality of life and nutrition. Furthermore, it is a well-known fact that anthropometric characteristics vary in time depending not only on endogenous factors, but also on ethnic, socio-economic, and other exogenous factors (Zsidegh et al., 2007; Jones et al., 2009). All of these characteristics condition the interaction of genetic and environmental factors influencing growth and development. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to determine the growth rate, nutritional status, as well as possible differences between children from different demographic areas in Slavonia. The sample consisted of 801 children (407 boys and 394 girls) from grades 1 to 4 in several primary schools in Slavonia. The sample was divided into two subsamples urban/rural, which were thereafter classified within each subsample according to gender. A sample of variables consisted of two anthropometric recordings of body height and body weight, after which a body mass index – BMI was calculated. The basic descriptive parameters were calculated and the t-test was used for de-termining the difference between the observed variables. A two-factor multivaria-te analysis of variance (MANOVA) tested the significance of differences between the two subsamples. No significant differences were observed between anthropometric characteristics of children from urban and rural areas. There is a noticeable trend of steady growth in body height and body weight for both genders. BMI also shows a negative trend of increase for both genders, and there are also more children who are at risk of obe-sity during the first four grades. Significant differences were observed only betwe-en genders in grades 1 and 2 in which boys are more dominant in body height and body weight. Systematic monitoring of anthropological characteristics should be an integral part of children's growth and development in order to ensure timely and adequate precauti-on measures and prevent negative health effects.
"Literature has particularly emerged around the role of green spaces in facilitating physical activity (e.g. walking, bicycling) and reducing obesity, although findings have been mixed in disadvantaged communities (Bell et al., 2008; Cutts et al., 2009; Feng et al.; Floyd et al., 2008; Jones et al., 2008; Kipke et al., 2007; Kumanyika and Grier, 2006; Neutze, 1984; Potestio et al., 2009; Pouliou and Elliott; Schuurman et al., 2009; Scott et al., 2007). The impact of green spaces in dense urban areas may also be greater compared to suburban or rural areas since individuals in crowded environments have fewer alternatives for physical activity (Badland et al., 2009; Potestio et al., 2009; Schuurman et al., 2009; Scott et al., 2009; Teo et al., 2009; Trasande et al.). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Evidence of a link between green space and obesity has increased in the developed world, but few studies have been conducted in the developing world. Our study tests whether availability of neighborhood green space is associated with BMI among adults in Cairo, Egypt. Using data from the 2007 Cairo Urban Inequity Study, we conducted multilevel analyses and found no significant green space-BMI association, leading us to conclude that this intervention may not be as promising in this developing world context as it has been in some western urban contexts. Other aspects of the urban environment should be evaluated to better understand neighborhood variations in obesity in Cairo.
Health & Place 03/2012; 18(2):385-90. DOI:10.1016/j.healthplace.2011.12.002 · 2.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The primary aim was to examine the relationships between perceived and objective measures of the neighbourhood environment, measured in late infancy, and subsequent overweight (including obesity) in 3-year-old children and their mothers. The secondary aim was to assess whether moving residence confounded these relationships.
We analysed data on 8 154 children and their mothers from the UK Millennium Cohort Study who had participated since birth and were living in England. At the first contact (late infancy), mothers reported their perceptions of their neighbourhood environment, and objective measures of the neighbourhood environment were obtained by linking national deprivation data to each child's postcode. We conducted logistic and multilevel regression analyses to examine perceived and objective measures of the neighbourhood environment, respectively, and overweight at the second contact (3 years) in children and their mothers. All analyses were adjusted for moving residence.
There were few consistent patterns between measures of the neighbourhood environment (perceived or objective) and early childhood overweight. However, mothers' risk of overweight increased with increasingly poor neighbourhood conditions (perceived) or residence in areas of increasing deprivation (objective), after adjustment for individual socio-demographic factors. All relationships were maintained after adjustment for moving residence.
While area-level factors have limited influence on the development of overweight in preschool children, they are likely to affect overweight in their mothers. Policies need to address both individual and environmental factors to tackle obesity and its determinants across the life course.
International journal of pediatric obesity: IJPO: an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity 01/2009; 4(3):183-92. DOI:10.1080/17477160802596155 · 3.03 Impact Factor
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