Synthesis of piperazinylalkyl ester prodrugs of ketorolac and their in vitro evaluation for transdermal delivery.
ABSTRACT Ketorolac, an NSAID, has low intrinsic permeation capacity through the skin. In this work, seven piperazinylalkyl ester prodrugs of ketorolac were synthesized to enhance its skin permeation. The chemical hydrolysis and the stability in human serum at 37 degrees C were investigated in buffer solutions (pH 5.0 and 7.4) and in 80% human serum (pH 7.4), respectively. The prodrugs were chemically more stable at pH 5.0 than at pH 7.4 with prodrug 8 being the most stable (t(1/2) = 119.75 h and 11.97 h at pH 5 and 7.4, respectively). The prodrugs' t(1/2) in human serum ranged from 0.79 to 3.92 min. The prodrugs' aqueous solubility was measured in buffer solution at pH 5.0 and 7.4 and Log P(app) was measured by partitioning between buffer solution (pH 5.0 and 7.4) and n-octanol. The prodrugs were more lipophilic than ketorolac at pH 7.4. Skin permeation of ketorolac and prodrug 8, the most stable chemically, through rat skin was studied at pH 5.0 and 7.4. Prodrug 8 enhanced permeation by 1.56- and 11.39-fold at pH 5 and 7.4, respectively. This is attributed to higher lipophilicity at pH 7.4 and higher aqueous solubility at pH 5 compared to ketorolac.
Article: Prodrugs of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), more than meets the eye: a critical review.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The design and the synthesis of prodrugs for nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been given much attention by medicinal chemists, especially in the last decade. As a therapeutic group, NSAIDs are among the most widely used prescribed and over the counter (OTC) medications. The rich literature about potential NSAID prodrugs clearly shows a shift from alkyl, aryalkyl or aryl esters with the sole role of masking the carboxylic acid group, to more elaborate conjugates that contain carefully chosen groups to serve specific purposes, such as enhancement of water solubility and dissolution, nitric oxide release, hydrogen sulfide release, antioxidant activity, anticholinergic and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory (AChEI) activity and site-specific targeting and delivery. This review will focus on NSAID prodrugs that have been designed or were, later, found to possess intrinsic pharmacological activity as an intact chemical entity. Such intrinsic activity might augment the anti-inflammatory activity of the NSAID, reduce its side effects or transform the potential therapeutic use from classical anti-inflammatory action to something else. Reports discussed in this review will be those of NO-NSAIDs, anticholinergic and AChEI-NSAIDs, Phospho-NSAIDs and some miscellaneous agents. In most cases, this review will cover literature dealing with these NSAID prodrugs from the year 2006 and later. Older literature will be used when necessary, e.g., to explain the chemical and biological mechanisms of action.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 01/2012; 13(12):17244-74. · 2.60 Impact Factor