Regulation of the receptor for TNFalpha, TNFR1, in human conjunctival epithelial cells.

Departments of Medicine, Visual Sciences, University of Wisconsin-Madison, School of Medicine and Public Health, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Investigative ophthalmology & visual science (Impact Factor: 3.43). 06/2008; 49(9):3992-8. DOI: 10.1167/iovs.08-1873
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous studies demonstrated that mast cell-derived TNFalpha stimulation is critical to the upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 on human conjunctival epithelial cells (HCECs), which is an important feature of ocular allergic inflammation. Shedding of TNFR1 by TNFalpha-converting enzyme (TACE) is a primary mechanism for the regulation of TNFalpha-mediated events. This process has not been examined in HCECs. In this study, the authors examined the regulation of TNFR1 expression and shedding by TACE on primary HCECs and the IOBA-NHC conjunctival epithelial cell line.
Primary human conjunctival mast cells and epithelial cells were obtained from cadaveric conjunctival tissue. HCECs were incubated with and without activators (IgE-activated mast cell supernates, phorbol myristate acetate [PMA; to activate TACE], TNFalpha, and IFNgamma [to upregulate TNFR1]) for 24 hours. Pretreatment with the TACE inhibitor TAPI-2 was used to inhibit shedding of TNFR1. Supernates collected from the incubations were analyzed with ELISA for soluble TNFR1 (sTNFR1). With the use of flow cytometry, cells were harvested from these experiments for analysis of TNFR1 and ICAM-1 receptor expression.
IgE-activated conjunctival mast cell supernates upregulated the expression of TNFR1. TAPI-2 inhibited the PMA-induced release of sTNFR1 receptor and enhanced the surface expression of TNFR1 in HCECs in a dose-dependent manner. Upregulation of TNFR1 expression by priming with TAPI-2 and IFNgamma resulted in enhanced ICAM-1 expression in response to TNFalpha stimulation (significant change in the slope of the dose-response curve).
These results demonstrate that TACE promotes TNFR1 shedding in HCECs and that TNFR1 expression may be a more significant target than TNFalpha for intervention in ocular inflammation.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: TNF is an essential regulator of the immune system. Dysregulation of TNF plays a role in the pathology of many auto-immune diseases. TNF-blocking agents have proven successful in the treatment of such diseases. Development of novel, safer or more effective drugs requires a deeper understanding of the regulation of the pro-inflammatory activities of TNF and its receptors. The ubiquitously expressed TNFR1 is responsible for most TNF effects, while TNFR2 has a limited expression pattern and performs immune-regulatory functions. Despite extensive knowledge of TNFR1 signaling, the regulation of TNFR1 expression, its modifications, localization and processing are less clear and the data are scattered. Here we review the current knowledge of TNFR1 regulation and discuss the impact this has on the host.
    Cytokine & growth factor reviews 03/2014; · 6.49 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly. Neurotrophic factors and inflammatory markers may play considerable roles in AD. In this study we measured, through Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay, the plasma levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and neuronal growth factor (NGF), as well as tumor necrosis factor-alpha soluble receptors, sTNFR1 and sTNFR2, and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (sICAM-1), in 50 AD patients, 37 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 56 healthy elderly controls. BDNF levels, expressed as median and interquartile range, were higher for AD patients (2545.3, 1497.4-4153.4 pg/ml) compared to controls (1503.8, 802.3-2378.4 pg/ml), P < 0.001. sICAM-1 was also higher in AD patients. sTNFR1 levels were increased in AD when compared to controls and also to MCI. GDNF, NGF and sTNFR2 levels showed no significant differences among the studied groups. The increase in BDNF might reflect a compensatory mechanism against early neurodegeneration and seems to be related to inflammation. sTNFR1 appears to mark not only the inflammatory state but also differentiates between MCI and AD, which may be an additional tool for differentiating degrees of cognitive impairment.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research 02/2014; · 4.09 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Proteolytic cleavage of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor (TNFR) from the cell surface contributes to anti-inflammatory responses and may be beneficial in reducing the excessive inflammation associated with multiple organ failure and mortality during sepsis. Using a clinically relevant mouse model of polymicrobial abdominal sepsis, we found that the production of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in hepatocytes led to the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-dependent activation of the protease TACE (TNF-converting enzyme) and the shedding of TNFR. Furthermore, treating mice with a cGMP analog after the induction of sepsis increased TNFR shedding and decreased systemic inflammation. Similarly, increasing the abundance of cGMP with a clinically approved phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor (sildenafil) also decreased markers of systemic inflammation, protected against organ injury, and increased circulating amounts of TNFR1 in mice with sepsis. We further confirmed that a similar iNOS-cGMP-TACE pathway was required for TNFR1 shedding by human hepatocytes in response to the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide. Our data suggest that increasing the bioavailability of cGMP might be beneficial in ameliorating the inflammation associated with sepsis. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
    Science Signaling 01/2015; 8(361):ra11. · 7.65 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

Available from
May 29, 2014