Article

Lysophosphatidic acid inhibits bacterial endotoxin-induced pro-inflammatory response: potential anti-inflammatory signaling pathways.

Department of Neurosciences, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, South Carolina, USA.
Molecular Medicine (Impact Factor: 4.82). 14(7-8):422-8. DOI: 10.2119/2007-00106.Fan
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Previous studies have demonstrated that heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory (Gi) protein-deficient mice exhibit augmented inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). These findings suggest that Gi protein agonists will suppress LPS-induced inflammatory gene expression. Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) activates G protein-coupled receptors leading to Gi protein activation. We hypothesized that LPA will inhibit LPS-induced inflammatory responses through activation of Gi-coupled anti-inflammatory signaling pathways. We examined the anti-inflammatory effect of LPA on LPS responses both in vivo and in vitro in CD-1 mice. The mice were injected intravenously with LPA (10 mg/kg) followed by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (75 mg/kg for survival and 25 mg/kg for other studies). LPA significantly increased the mice survival to endotoxemia (P < 0.05). LPA injection reduced LPS-induced plasma TNF-alpha production (69 +/- 6%, P < 0.05) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in lung (33 +/- 9%, P < 0.05) as compared to vehicle injection. LPS-induced plasma IL-6 was unchanged by LPA. In vitro studies with peritoneal macrophages paralleled results from in vivo studies. LPA (1 and 10 microM) significantly inhibited LPS-induced TNFalpha production (61 +/- 9% and 72 +/- 9%, respectively, P < 0.05) but not IL-6. We further demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory effect of LPA was reversed by ERK 1/2 and phosphatase inhibitors, suggesting that ERK 1/2 pathway and serine/threonine phosphatases are involved. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3) kinase signaling pathways also partially reversed the LPA anti-inflammatory response. However, LPA did not alter NFkappaB and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) activation. Inhibitors of PPARgamma did not alter LPA-induced inhibition of LPS signaling. These studies demonstrate that LPA has significant anti-inflammatory activities involving activation of ERK 1/2, serine/threonine phosphatases, and PI3 kinase signaling pathways.

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