A case of posterior reversible encephalopathy during polyarteritis nodosa vasculitis
ABSTRACT Posterior reversible encephalopathy is a distinctive syndrome associated with different diseases and drugs. Disease evolution is frequently favorable with an adequate treatment. Damage typically involves parietal-occipital lobes even if a more anterior diffusion has been described. Here, we report the case of a woman affected by Polyarteritis Nodosa, who suddenly complicated with decreased consciousness and seizures, during an acute hypertensive state. MRI imaging showed increased T2 and FLAIR signal in posterior regions. Her neurological evolution was positive, according to arterial pressure correction, although the systemic vasculitis was still ongoing, hence affecting final prognosis.
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ABSTRACT: Autoimmune vasculitides can have diverse neurological manifestations, including posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES). Takayasu's arteritis (TA) is an uncommon vasculitis rarely associated with PRES. Common clinical features of TA include hypertension, audible arterial bruits, absence of peripheral pulses, claudication of the extremities, reduced blood pressure in one or both arms, and angiographic abnormalities. PRES has been mostly associated with severe hypertension, endothelial injury, and conditions such as renal disease, immunosuppressive medication use, and rheumatologic diseases. Headaches, seizures, and altered mental status are the main clinical features as well as characteristic findings in magnetic resonance imaging. TA frequently presents with hypertension and is associated with endothelial injury, making this entity an ideal setting for the development of PRES. We report the case of a 17-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with severe hypertension, headache, and seizures. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were suggestive of PRES. She had absent pulses in the right upper extremity, abdominal bruits, and angiographic findings included subclavian and renal artery stenoses. The diagnosis of TA was made, and she responded well to treatment. We found ten additional cases of TA and PRES in the literature. All patients were females under the age of 40, had renovascular hypertension, and presented with headaches and seizures. Current literature relevant to this rare association is presented and discussed.Clinical Rheumatology 01/2013; 32(3). DOI:10.1007/s10067-012-2151-9 · 1.77 Impact Factor
Article: Imaging Spectrum of CNS Vasculitis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Cerebral vasculitis is characterized by inflammation of the walls of blood vessels and may affect vessels of any size. The pathogenesis of vasculitis remains poorly understood. Vasculitis may affect large vessels (Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis), medium-sized vessels (Kawasaki disease, polyarteritis nodosa), small vessels (immunoglobulin A vasculitis, microscopic polyangiitis, granulomatosis with polyangiitis, eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis), or variable-sized vessels (Behçet disease, Cogan syndrome). Primary angiitis of the central nervous system (CNS) is an idiopathic disorder with no evidence of generalized inflammation that may simulate reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndromes. Vasculitis may be secondary to systemic disease, infection, malignancy, drug use, or radiation therapy. Imaging findings vary from small ischemic changes to frank infarction, hemorrhage, and white matter edema and may show contrast material enhancement. The cerebral arteries may demonstrate a beaded appearance with variable degrees of stenosis, occlusion, and contrast enhancement of the vessel wall. Correlation of imaging findings with clinical presentation and laboratory test results helps establish the diagnosis of CNS vasculitis. ©RSNA, 2014.Radiographics 07/2014; 34(4):873-894. DOI:10.1148/rg.344135028 · 2.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective To analyze the clinical features and outcomes of patients with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), the risk factors of PRES-related intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), and all-cause mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Methods Twenty-six episodes of PRES were identified in 23 SLE patients, using an electronic medical records database of 3,746 SLE patients. ResultsThe prevalence of PRES was 0.69% among SLE patients. The scores of the SLE Disease Activity Index without neurologic descriptors (SLEDAI-N) were significantly elevated from baseline for a mean of 3.3 during PRES (P = 0.009). Rapidly deteriorating renal function, pulmonary hemorrhage, thrombotic microangiopathy, macrophage activation syndrome, or multiple organ dysfunction syndrome appeared during 65.4% of episodes. In 16 episodes, patients completely recovered from PRES-related symptoms within a median of 7 days. Visual impairment was reversed within 2 days in 8 of 15 patients, but impairment in other patients was protracted for up to 4 months, especially when ICH was present. Hypoalbuminemia (<20 gm/liter; odds ratio [OR] 30, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 2.04-441.84) and thrombocytopenia (<30,000/mm(3); OR 21, 95% CI 1.27-346.93) were risk factors for PRES-related ICH. Patients with SLEDAI-N scores >18 during a PRES attack had significantly higher mortality rates than did patients with SLEDAI-N scores 18 (P = 0.009 by log rank test). ConclusionPRES frequently occurs during active SLE with multiple complications. Hypoalbuminemia and thrombocytopenia may contribute to PRES-related ICH. The extraneurologic disease activity of lupus during PRES may influence the mortality rate of SLE patients.11/2013; 65(11). DOI:10.1002/acr.22047