A case of posterior reversible encephalopathy during polyarteritis nodosa vasculitis.
ABSTRACT Posterior reversible encephalopathy is a distinctive syndrome associated with different diseases and drugs. Disease evolution is frequently favorable with an adequate treatment. Damage typically involves parietal-occipital lobes even if a more anterior diffusion has been described. Here, we report the case of a woman affected by Polyarteritis Nodosa, who suddenly complicated with decreased consciousness and seizures, during an acute hypertensive state. MRI imaging showed increased T2 and FLAIR signal in posterior regions. Her neurological evolution was positive, according to arterial pressure correction, although the systemic vasculitis was still ongoing, hence affecting final prognosis.
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Article: Hypertensive emergencies.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: A hypertensive emergency is a situation in which uncontrolled hypertension is associated with acute end-organ damage. Most patients presenting with hypertensive emergency have chronic hypertension, although the disorder can present in previously normotensive individuals, particularly when associated with pre-eclampsia or acute glomerulonephritis. The pathophysiological mechanisms causing acute hypertensive endothelial failure are complex and incompletely understood but probably involve disturbances of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, loss of endogenous vasodilator mechanisms, upregulation of proinflammatory mediators including vascular cell adhesion molecules, and release of local vasoconstrictors such as endothelin 1. Magnetic resonance imaging has demonstrated a characteristic hypertensive posterior leucoencephalopathy syndrome predominantly causing oedema of the white matter of the parietal and occipital lobes; this syndrome is potentially reversible with appropriate prompt treatment. Generally, the therapeutic approach is dictated by the particular presentation and end-organ complications. Parenteral therapy is generally preferred, and strategies include use of sodium nitroprusside, beta-blockers, labetelol, or calcium-channel antagonists, magnesium for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia; and short-term parenteral anticonvulsants for seizures associated with encephalopathy. Novel therapies include the peripheral dopamine-receptor agonist, fenoldapam, and may include endothelin-1 antagonists.The Lancet 08/2000; 356(9227):411-7. · 39.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To demonstrate the neuroradiologic findings in patients with polyarteritis nodosa. A review of hospital records for a 10-year period revealed 50 patients with a discharge diagnosis of polyarteritis nodosa. Thirteen patients had undergone neuroimaging, and abnormal findings were found in 5 cases; these were the subjects of this study. All 5 patients had abnormal findings on CT scans, 3 had abnormal findings on MR images, and 1 had an abnormal finding on a cerebral angiogram. All patients had cerebral cortical or subcortical infarctions, and 1 also had small infarctions within the brain stem and cerebellum. One patient had cerebral angiographic findings of arteritis. The diagnosis of arteritis was considered probable or possible in 3 other patients. Three patients had echocardiographic evidence of concentric hypertrophy and a hypocontractile left ventricle resulting from polyarteritis nodosa-related hypertension. Cardiogenic embolism was considered the likely cause in 1 patient. Small peripheral cerebral infarctions, consistent with an arteritis involving medium-sized and small arteries, were the most common finding. However, cardiogenic embolism should also be considered as a possible cause of cerebral infarction in patients with polyarteritis nodosa who have left ventricular dysfunction.American Journal of Neuroradiology 17(6):1119-26. · 3.17 Impact Factor
Article: Case 129: Polyarteritis nodosa.Radiology 02/2008; 246(1):322-6. · 6.34 Impact Factor