Alcohol-Attributable Fraction for Injury in the U.S. General Population: Data From the 2005 National Alcohol Survey
ABSTRACT Although studies of patients seen in emergency department (ED) settings have documented a strong association of alcohol with injury, such patients are not necessarily representative of the larger population, and less is known of alcohol's association with risk of injury in patient samples outside the ED.
Drinking before injury was analyzed in the 2005 National Alcohol Survey among the 1,149 respondents (18.5%, weighted) who reported an injury during the past year; analysis was by injury treatment type (ED-treated, 29.2%; other-treated, 47.8%; and nontreated, 22.9%).
Based on case-crossover analysis, the relative risk of injury from drinking was 1.85 (p < .01) for those with an ED-treated injury, 1.42 (ns) for those with an other-treated injury, and 1.43 (ns) for those with a nontreated injury. Alcohol-attributable fractions based on these relative risk estimates were 2.96% for an ED-treated injury, 1.59% for an other-treated injury, and 1.89% for a nontreated injury. Comparative attributable fractions based on the person's causal attribution of injury to his or her drinking were 3.06%, 1.61%, and 1.47%, respectively. Although these attributable fractions based on case-crossover analysis and subjective evaluation of causal attribution were not greatly different, all estimates were considerably smaller than those found in studies of ED patients.
The data suggest that alcohol plays a larger role in those injuries for which treatment is sought in EDs, and this may be related to the severity of the injury. Additional studies of alcohol and injury in general populations that take into account the intensity of exposure to alcohol before the event, as well as recall bias by eliciting data on the proximity of the event to the time of the respondent interview, are necessary for determining unbiased estimates of the attributable fraction of alcohol in injury morbidity.
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ABSTRACT: Background The incidence of mandibular fractures in the Northern Territory of Australia is very high, especially among Indigenous people. Alcohol intoxication is implicated in the majority of facial injuries, and substance use is therefore an important target for secondary prevention. The current study tests the efficacy of a brief therapy, Motivational Care Planning, in improving wellbeing and substance misuse in youth and adults hospitalised with alcohol-related facial trauma. Methods and design The study is a randomised controlled trial with 6 months of follow-up, to examine the effectiveness of a brief and culturally adapted intervention in improving outcomes for trauma patients with at-risk drinking admitted to the Royal Darwin Hospital maxillofacial surgery unit. Potential participants are identified using AUDIT-C questionnaire. Eligible participants are randomised to either Motivational Care Planning (MCP) or Treatment as Usual (TAU). The outcome measures will include quantity and frequency of alcohol and other substance use by Timeline Followback. The recruitment target is 154 participants, which with 20% dropout, is hoped to provide 124 people receiving treatment and follow-up. Discussion This project introduces screening and brief interventions for high-risk drinkers admitted to the hospital with facial trauma. It introduces a practical approach to integrating brief interventions in the hospital setting, and has potential to demonstrate significant benefits for at-risk drinkers with facial trauma. Trial Registration The trial has been registered in Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) and Trial Registration: ACTRN12611000135910.BMC Health Services Research 10/2012; 12(1):371. DOI:10.1186/1472-6963-12-371 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: While emergency room (ER) studies have documented a strong association of alcohol with injury, these studies are not necessarily representative of the general population. To evaluate comparative risk of injury from drinking for those treated in the ER with non-ER-treated injuries (those treated elsewhere or those not treated), data on alcohol and injury are analyzed in the U.S. general population by type of injury treatment. Relative risk (RR) of injury from drinking within 6 hours prior to the event was analyzed using case-crossover analysis based on respondents' usual frequency of drinking in 4 (1995 to 2010) National Alcohol Surveys (n = 4,819). RR was 1.01 for the total injured and significantly elevated for ER-treated injured (1.46), but not for those treated elsewhere (0.75) and those not treated (1.02). RR was significantly elevated for those aged 18 to 30 years (1.45; 1.14, 1.85), Blacks (1.54; 1.11, 2.14) and Hispanics (1.98; 1.51, 2.59), those positive on the Rapid Alcohol Problems Screen (RAPS4) as a measure of alcohol dependence (2.41; 1.86, 3.11), and for motor vehicle injuries (2.61; 1.49, 4.58) or cutting/piercing injuries (2.04, 1.10, 3.81). For those reporting ER-treated injuries, significant effect modification was found for those aged 18 to 30 years (RR = 2.29), Blacks (RR = 2.59) and Hispanics (RR = 2.68), high risk-taking (RR = 1.71), positive RAPS4 (RR = 3.69), and for motor vehicle (RR = 3.79) and cutting/piercing injuries (RR = 2.60). Data suggest alcohol plays a larger role in injuries for which ER treatment is sought than for other injuries, and estimates for injury from drinking derived from ER studies may be elevated. Future general population studies should take into account intensity of exposure to alcohol prior to injury, potential recall bias (by eliciting data on the proximity of injury to time of the respondent interview) and severity of injury, for improving estimates of the attributable burden of alcohol to injury in society.Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 01/2014; 38(4). DOI:10.1111/acer.12347 · 3.31 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: BackgroundAlthough screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) has shown promise for alcohol use, relatively little is known about its effectiveness for adult illicit drug use. This randomized controlled trial assessed the effectiveness of the SBIRT approach for outcomes related to drug use among patients visiting trauma and emergency departments (EDs) at two large, urban hospitals.MethodsA total of 700 ED patients who admitted using illegal drugs in the past 30 days were recruited, consented, provided baseline measures of substance use and related problems measured with the Addiction Severity Index-Lite (ASI-Lite), and then randomized to the Life Shift SBIRT intervention or to an attention-placebo control group focusing on driving and traffic safety (Shift Gears). Both groups received a level of motivational intervention matched to their condition and risk level by trained paraprofessional health educators. Separate measurement technicians conducted face-to-face follow-ups at 6 months post-intervention and collected hair samples to confirm reports of abstinence from drug use. The primary outcome measure of the study was past 30-day drug abstinence at 6 months post-intervention, as self-reported on the ASI-Lite.ResultsOf 700 participants, 292 (42%) completed follow-up. There were no significant differences in self-reported abstinence (12.5% vs. 12.0% , p = 0.88) for Life Shift and Shift Gears groups, respectively. When results of hair analyses were applied, the abstinence rate was 7 percent for Life Shift and 2 percent for Shift Gears (p = .074). In an analysis in which results were imputed (n = 694), there was no significant difference in the ASI-Lite drug use composite scores (Life Shift +0.005 vs. Shift Gears +0.017, p = 0.12).ConclusionsIn this randomized controlled trial, there was no evidence of effectiveness of SBIRT on the primary drug use outcome.Trial registrationClinicalTrials.gov NCT01683227.Addiction science & clinical practice 05/2014; 9(1):8. DOI:10.1186/1940-0640-9-8