Energy expenditure of the physical activity across the curriculum intervention
ABSTRACT Physical activity is frequently a component of interventions designed to diminish weight gain in children. It is essential to determine whether the energy expenditure (EE) elicited by these interventions is sufficient to reduce the rate of weight gain.
To quantify the EE of the Physical Activity across the Curriculum (PAAC) intervention. This intervention involved two 10-min physically active academic lessons per day, taught by classroom teachers.
We assessed EE of PAAC in 19 males and 19 females using both an indirect calorimeter (IC) (COSMED K4b(2)) and an accelerometer (ActiGraph) (AC). Independent t-tests were used to evaluate gender differences. Dependent t-tests were used to examine the difference between EE assessed by IC and AC. The agreement between EE measured by IC and estimated by AC was evaluated using a Bland-Altman plot. A Pearson correlation between EE measured by IC and estimated by AC was calculated.
There were no significant gender differences for age, BMI, or EE; therefore, analyses by gender were not performed. The mean EE measured by IC was 3.1 +/- 1.0 kcal x min(-1) (3.4 METs). Mean EE estimated by AC (1.8 +/- 0.9 kcal x min(-1)) was significantly lower (P < 0.05) than EE measured by IC (mean underestimation = 1.3 kcal x min(-1)). The Bland-Altman plot suggested increased underestimation with increased levels of EE. The 95% limits of agreement were large (-2.8 to +0.3 kcal x min(-1)). The correlation between EE measured by IC and estimated by AC was r = 0.68 (P < 0.001).
PAAC elicited a level of EE that may prevent excessive weight gain in children. AC significantly underestimated the EE of PAAC lessons and may not provide useful EE estimates in this context.
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ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND Research suggests that physical activity breaks (ABs) during class increase students' physical activity levels and provide an academic benefit. This study evaluates a 3-year intervention aimed at encouraging teacher AB use.METHODS Thirty central Texas middle schools were assigned to 1 of 3 conditions: training-only (Basic), training plus facilitator support (Basic Plus), and training/facilitator support and a social marketing campaign (Basic Plus SM). Teachers completed surveys at end of years 2 (N = 1039) and 3 (N = 831) to assess exposure to program, self-efficacy, and frequency of AB use.RESULTSAt end of year 3, teachers in facilitator-supported conditions reported increased exposure, self-efficacy, and use compared to Basic condition. Only 43.2% of teachers in the Basic condition reported receiving training in ABs compared to 84.2% and 90.6% in the Basic Plus and Basic Plus SM conditions, respectively. Additionally, a greater percentage of teachers in the facilitator-support conditions reported conducting ABs weekly (Basic = 23.3%, Basic Plus = 34.4%, Basic Plus SM = 38.7%, at year 3; p < .001).CONCLUSIONS Despite perceived barriers, including fear that ABs will detract from instructional time, the intervention was successful in having a core group of teachers implement them weekly. More research is needed to increase the percentage of teachers implementing ABs regularly.Journal of School Health 11/2014; 84(11). DOI:10.1111/josh.12203 · 1.66 Impact Factor
Journal of School Health 10/2011; 81(10). DOI:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2011.00631.x · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Integration of physical active academic lessons in the school curriculum may be an innovative way to improve academic outcomes. This study examined the effect of physically active academic lessons (Fit en Vaardig op school) on academic engagement of socially disadvantaged children and children without this disadvantage. In addition, the relationship between lesson time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity and academic engagement was examined. From four elementary schools, 86 children who participated in the 22-weeks intervention were recruited (23 socially disadvantaged children). Academic engagement was determined by observing time-on-task during three classroom observation moments (start, midway and end observation). Every moment consisted of lesson observations after intervention lessons (post-intervention) and after regular classroom lessons (post-control). Differences in time-on-task between socially disadvantaged children and children without this disadvantage were analyzed using independent samples t-test. Differences between post-intervention and post-control observations were analyzed using multilevel analysis. Heart rate monitors measured the lesson time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. The relationship between percentage of moderate to vigorous physical activity during the intervention lessons and time-on-task was analyzed by calculation of partial correlations. Time-on-task of socially disadvantaged children was lower than that of children without this disadvantage, differences were significant at the start post-control (t(65) = 2.39, p < 0.05) and post-intervention (t(71) = 2.75, p < 0.05) observation and at the midway post-control (t(68) = 2.45, p < 0.05) observation. Multilevel analysis showed that the time-on-task of all children was significantly higher during post-intervention in comparison with post-control lessons (ES = 0.41). No significant difference was found at the start observation, but there were significant differences at the midway (ES = 0.60) and end (ES = 0.59) observation. On average, the children were exercising in moderate to vigorous physical activity during 60% of de lesson time (14 minutes of an average lesson of 23 minutes). No significant relationships were found between percentage of moderate to vigorous physical activity during the intervention and time-on-task in the post-intervention lessons. Physically active academic lessons may positively influence time-on-task in children, which can contribute to academic success in the long term.BMC Public Health 04/2015; 15(1). DOI:10.1186/s12889-015-1745-y · 2.32 Impact Factor