Candida albicans-induced DC activation partially restricts HIV amplification in DCs and increases DC to T-cell spread of HIV.
ABSTRACT Dendritic cells (DCs) are central to the innate and adaptive responses needed to control pathogens, yet HIV exploits DCs to promote infection. The influence of other pathogens on DC-HIV interplay has not been extensively studied. We used Candida albicans (Candida) as a model pathogen which elicits innate DC responses that are likely important in controlling Candida by healthy immune systems. HIV did not impede Candida-specific DC activation. Candida-induced CD80 and CD83 upregulation was greater in DCs that had captured HIV, coinciding with increased amplification in presence of T cells and reduced but persistent low-level DC infection. In contrast, HIV-infected DCs matured normally in response to Candida, but this did not shut down HIV replication in DCs, and again Candida augmented HIV amplification in DC-T-cell mixtures. HIV-infected DCs secreted more IL-10 and IL-1beta earlier than uninfected DCs and initially induced a higher frequency of CD4CD25FoxP3 T-regulatory cells in response to Candida. Elevated early IL-10 production in cocultures was evident only when azidothymidine (AZT) was included to limit T-regulatory cell infection and destruction. Therefore, HIV manipulates the DC's innate and adaptive responses to Candida to further augment HIV spread, ultimately destroying the cells needed to limit candidiasis.
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ABSTRACT: Penicillium marneffei (P. marneffei) is considered an indicator pathogen of AIDS, and the endemicity and clinical features of P. marneffei have been described. While, how the co-infection of P. marneffei exacerbate deterioration of the immune response remains poorly understood. Here we isolated P. marneffei from the cutaneous lesions of AIDS patients and analyzed its effects on HIV-1-dendritic cells (DCs) interaction. We demonstrated that the monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) could be activated by both thermally dimorphic forms of P. marneffei for significantly promoting HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4(+) T cells, while these activated MDDCs were refractory to HIV-1 infection. Mechanistically, P. marneffei-activated MDDCs endocytosed large amounts of HIV-1 and sequestrated the internalized viruses into tetrapasnin CD81(+) compartments potentially for proteolysis escaping. The activated MDDCs increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and facilitated the formation of DC-T-cell conjunctions, where much more viruses were recruited. Moreover, we found that P. marneffei-stimulated MDDCs efficiently activated resting CD4(+) T cells and induced more susceptible targets for viral infection. Our findings demonstrate that DC function and its interaction with HIV-1 have been modulated by opportunistic pathogens such as P. marneffei for viral dissemination and infection amplification, highlighting the importance of understanding DC-HIV-1 interaction for viral immunopathogenesis elucidation.PLoS ONE 11/2011; 6(11):e27609. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0027609 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Macrophages are one of the most important HIV-1 target cells. Unlike CD4(+) T cells, macrophages are resistant to the cytophatic effect of HIV-1. They are able to produce and harbor the virus for long periods acting as a viral reservoir. Candida albicans (CA) is a commensal fungus that colonizes the portals of HIV-1 entry, such as the vagina and the rectum, and becomes an aggressive pathogen in AIDS patients. In this study, we analyzed the ability of CA to modulate the course of HIV-1 infection in human monocyte-derived macrophages. We found that CA abrogated HIV-1 replication in macrophages when it was evaluated 7 days after virus inoculation. A similar inhibitory effect was observed in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. The analysis of the mechanisms responsible for the inhibition of HIV-1 production in macrophages revealed that CA efficiently sequesters HIV-1 particles avoiding its infectivity. Moreover, by acting on macrophages themselves, CA diminishes their permissibility to HIV-1 infection by reducing the expression of CD4, enhancing the production of the CCR5-interacting chemokines CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, and CCL5/RANTES, and stimulating the production of interferon-α and the restriction factors APOBEC3G, APOBEC3F, and tetherin. Interestingly, abrogation of HIV-1 replication was overcome when the infection of macrophages was evaluated 2-3 weeks after virus inoculation. However, this reactivation of HIV-1 infection could be silenced by CA when added periodically to HIV-1-challenged macrophages. The induction of a silent HIV-1 infection in macrophages at the periphery, where cells are continuously confronted with CA, might help HIV-1 to evade the immune response and to promote resistance to antiretroviral therapy.PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e72814. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072814 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since the 1990s we have known of the fascinating ability of a complex set of professional antigen presenting cells (APCs; dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, and B lymphocytes) to mediate HIV-1 trans infection of CD4(+) T cells. This results in a burst of virus replication in the T cells that is much greater than that resulting from direct, cis infection of either APC or T cells, or trans infection between T cells. Such APC-to-T cell trans infection first involves a complex set of virus subtype, attachment, entry, and replication patterns that have many similarities among APC, as well as distinct differences related to virus receptors, intracellular trafficking, and productive and nonproductive replication pathways. The end result is that HIV-1 can sequester within the APC for several days and be transmitted via membrane extensions intracellularly and extracellularly to T cells across the virologic synapse. Virus replication requires activated T cells that can develop concurrently with the events of virus transmission. Further research is essential to fill the many gaps in our understanding of these trans infection processes and their role in natural HIV-1 infection.05/2013; 2013:164203. DOI:10.1155/2013/164203