Dendritic cells (DCs) are central to the innate and adaptive responses needed to control pathogens, yet HIV exploits DCs to promote infection. The influence of other pathogens on DC-HIV interplay has not been extensively studied. We used Candida albicans (Candida) as a model pathogen which elicits innate DC responses that are likely important in controlling Candida by healthy immune systems. HIV did not impede Candida-specific DC activation. Candida-induced CD80 and CD83 upregulation was greater in DCs that had captured HIV, coinciding with increased amplification in presence of T cells and reduced but persistent low-level DC infection. In contrast, HIV-infected DCs matured normally in response to Candida, but this did not shut down HIV replication in DCs, and again Candida augmented HIV amplification in DC-T-cell mixtures. HIV-infected DCs secreted more IL-10 and IL-1beta earlier than uninfected DCs and initially induced a higher frequency of CD4CD25FoxP3 T-regulatory cells in response to Candida. Elevated early IL-10 production in cocultures was evident only when azidothymidine (AZT) was included to limit T-regulatory cell infection and destruction. Therefore, HIV manipulates the DC's innate and adaptive responses to Candida to further augment HIV spread, ultimately destroying the cells needed to limit candidiasis.
"Moreover, mucocutaneous candidiasis is one of the most common manifestations of HIV-1 infection [18,19]. Since CA can infect, survive and persist in macrophages [46–44,8], it is reasonable to speculate that coinfection of macrophages by HIV-1 and CA might occur in infected patients in the periphery, at the portals of HIV-1 entry. In this scenario, suppression of HIV-1 replication in macrophages induced by CA could induce opposite effects on the course of HIV-1 infection. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Macrophages are one of the most important HIV-1 target cells. Unlike CD4(+) T cells, macrophages are resistant to the cytophatic effect of HIV-1. They are able to produce and harbor the virus for long periods acting as a viral reservoir. Candida albicans (CA) is a commensal fungus that colonizes the portals of HIV-1 entry, such as the vagina and the rectum, and becomes an aggressive pathogen in AIDS patients. In this study, we analyzed the ability of CA to modulate the course of HIV-1 infection in human monocyte-derived macrophages. We found that CA abrogated HIV-1 replication in macrophages when it was evaluated 7 days after virus inoculation. A similar inhibitory effect was observed in monocyte-derived dendritic cells. The analysis of the mechanisms responsible for the inhibition of HIV-1 production in macrophages revealed that CA efficiently sequesters HIV-1 particles avoiding its infectivity. Moreover, by acting on macrophages themselves, CA diminishes their permissibility to HIV-1 infection by reducing the expression of CD4, enhancing the production of the CCR5-interacting chemokines CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, and CCL5/RANTES, and stimulating the production of interferon-α and the restriction factors APOBEC3G, APOBEC3F, and tetherin. Interestingly, abrogation of HIV-1 replication was overcome when the infection of macrophages was evaluated 2-3 weeks after virus inoculation. However, this reactivation of HIV-1 infection could be silenced by CA when added periodically to HIV-1-challenged macrophages. The induction of a silent HIV-1 infection in macrophages at the periphery, where cells are continuously confronted with CA, might help HIV-1 to evade the immune response and to promote resistance to antiretroviral therapy.
PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e72814. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072814 · 3.23 Impact Factor
"We found that MDDCs could be activated by both dimorphic forms of P. marneffei for significantly promoting HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ T cells, and the Candida albicans (C. albicans), which has been proved to possess the similar capacity , was used as control. Increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) was observed on fungus-activated MDDCs, and the tighter DC-T-cell conjunction recruited significant amounts of virus particles for viral transfer. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Penicillium marneffei (P. marneffei) is considered an indicator pathogen of AIDS, and the endemicity and clinical features of P. marneffei have been described. While, how the co-infection of P. marneffei exacerbate deterioration of the immune response remains poorly understood. Here we isolated P. marneffei from the cutaneous lesions of AIDS patients and analyzed its effects on HIV-1-dendritic cells (DCs) interaction. We demonstrated that the monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) could be activated by both thermally dimorphic forms of P. marneffei for significantly promoting HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4(+) T cells, while these activated MDDCs were refractory to HIV-1 infection. Mechanistically, P. marneffei-activated MDDCs endocytosed large amounts of HIV-1 and sequestrated the internalized viruses into tetrapasnin CD81(+) compartments potentially for proteolysis escaping. The activated MDDCs increased expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and facilitated the formation of DC-T-cell conjunctions, where much more viruses were recruited. Moreover, we found that P. marneffei-stimulated MDDCs efficiently activated resting CD4(+) T cells and induced more susceptible targets for viral infection. Our findings demonstrate that DC function and its interaction with HIV-1 have been modulated by opportunistic pathogens such as P. marneffei for viral dissemination and infection amplification, highlighting the importance of understanding DC-HIV-1 interaction for viral immunopathogenesis elucidation.
PLoS ONE 11/2011; 6(11):e27609. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0027609 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Anti-HIV microbicides are being investigated in clinical trials and understanding how promising strategies work, coincident with demonstrating efficacy in vivo, is central to advancing new generation microbicides. We evaluated Carraguard and a new generation Carraguard-based formulation containing the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) MIV-150 (PC-817). Since dendritic cells (DCs) are believed to be important in HIV transmission, the formulations were tested for the ability to limit DC-driven infection in vitro versus vaginal infection of macaques with RT-SHIV (SIVmac239 bearing HIV reverse transcriptase). Carraguard showed limited activity against cell-free and mature DC-driven RT-SHIV infections and, surprisingly, low doses of Carraguard enhanced infection. However, nanomolar amounts of MIV-150 overcame enhancement and blocked DC-transmitted infection. In contrast, Carraguard impeded infection of immature DCs coincident with DC maturation. Despite this variable activity in vitro, Carraguard and PC-817 prevented vaginal transmission of RT-SHIV when applied 30 min prior to challenge. PC-817 appeared no more effective than Carraguard in vivo, due to the limited activity of a single dose of MIV-150 and the dominant barrier effect of Carraguard. However, 3 doses of MIV-150 in placebo gel at and around challenge limited vaginal infection, demonstrating the potential activity of a topically applied NNRTI. These data demonstrate discordant observations when comparing in vitro and in vivo efficacy of Carraguard-based microbicides, highlighting the difficulties in testing putative anti-viral strategies in vitro to predict in vivo activity. This work also underscores the potential of Carraguard-based formulations for the delivery of anti-viral drugs to prevent vaginal HIV infection.
PLoS ONE 02/2008; 3(9):e3162. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0003162 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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