Prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission: similar access for sub-Sahara African immigrants and for French women?

INSERM Unit 822, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, Paris, France.
AIDS (London, England) (Impact Factor: 6.56). 07/2008; 22(12):1503-11. DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3283065b8c
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT : To investigate whether mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) management and rate differed between African immigrants and French-born women delivering in France.
: MTCT strategies were studied among human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected women delivering between 1984 and 2007 in the multicenter French Perinatal Cohort, according to geographical origin.
: Among 9245 pregnancies (in 7090 women), the proportion of African mothers increased from 12% in 1984-1986 to 64% in 2003-2004. African women had later access to care than French women, even in recent years (1997-2004). They more often discovered their HIV infection during pregnancy (40.6 vs. 11.5%, P < 0.001), started prenatal care in the third trimester (14.1 vs. 9.8%, P < 0.001) and started antiretroviral therapy after 32 weeks gestation (7.6 vs. 4.1%, P < 0.001). The association with late treatment initiation disappeared when adjusted for late HIV diagnosis and prenatal care (adjusted odds ratio 1.0, 95% confidence interval 0.7-1.4). African and French women did not differ in terms of access to highly active antiretroviral therapy, nor for substandard management such as vaginal delivery with uncontrolled viral load, lack of intrapartum and postpartum treatment or breastfeeding. The MTCT rate was higher for African than for French women receiving antiretroviral therapy (1.8 vs. 0.8%, P = 0.02), but the difference was no longer significant after adjustment for main transmission risk factors (adjusted odds ratio = 1.7, 95% confidence interval 0.8-3.7, P = 0.17). MTCT did not differ among 2110 term deliveries with maternal viral load less than 400 copies/ml, (0.8 vs. 0.6%, P = 0.5).
: African immigrants more often had late HIV screening in pregnancy than French-born women, but had similar access to MTCT prevention, once the infection was diagnosed.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background. Morbidity and mortality are higher among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exposed but uninfected (HEU) infants than unexposed infants, particularly if the mother had a low CD4 count. We investigated the possible association between maternal immune depression during pregnancy and the risk of infection in HEU infants in the national French Perinatal Cohort (EPF). Methods. All neonates, born alive, to HIV-1-infected women enrolled in the EPF between 2002 and 2010 were included. The primary outcome was the first serious (hospitalization or death) infection during the first year of life. The main exposure variable was maternal CD4 cell count near delivery. The Kaplan-Meier method and multivariate Cox models were applied, with the different types of infections managed as competing events. Results. Among 7638 HEU neonates, 699 had at least 1 serious infection (of which 159 were bacterial) with a Kaplan-Meier probability of 9.3% (95% confidence interval, 8.7-10.0) at 1 year. The risk of serious bacterial infection during the first year of life significantly increased with lower maternal CD4 cell count, before and after adjustment for maternal CD4 cell count < 350 and 350-499 CD4/mm(3) (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.7 [1.2-2.6] and 1.2 [0.8-1.9], respectively; P = .03). This association mainly concerned infections involving encapsulated bacteria (P = .03). The risk of serious viral infection was, by contrast, independent of the mother's CD4 cell count. Conclusions. Maternal CD4 count is significantly and specifically associated with the risk of serious infections with encapsulated bacteria in HEU infants.
    Clinical Infectious Diseases 07/2014; 59(9). DOI:10.1093/cid/ciu586 · 9.42 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Objective: To evaluate the prevalence and consequences of late antenatal booking (13 or more weeks gestation) in a national observational study of pregnant women with HIV. Methods: The clinical and demographic characteristics associated with late booking were evaluated in univariate analyses using the Mann-Whitney U test for quantitative data and the chi-square test for categorical data. The associations that were found were re-evaluated in multivariable logistic regression models. Main outcomes were preterm delivery, low birthweight, nonelective cesarean section, birth defects, undetectable (<50 copies/mL) HIV plasma viral load at third trimester, delivery complications, and gender-adjusted and gestational age-adjusted Z scores for birthweight. Results: Rate of late booking among 1,643 pregnancies was 32.9%. This condition was associated with younger age, African provenance, diagnosis of HIV during pregnancy, and less antiretroviral exposure. Undetectable HIV RNA at third trimester and preterm delivery were significantly more prevalent with earlier booking (67.1% vs 46.3%, P < .001, and 23.2% vs 17.6, P = .010, respectively), whereas complications of delivery were more common with late booking (8.2% vs 5.0%, P = .013). Multivariable analyses confirmed an independent role of late booking in predicting detectable HIV RNA at third trimester (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.7; 95% CI, 1.3-2.3; P < .001) and delivery complications (AOR, 1.8; 95% CI, 1.2-2.8; P = .005). Conclusions: Late antenatal booking was associated with detectable HIV RNA in late pregnancy and with complications of delivery. Measures should be taken to ensure an earlier entry into antenatal care, particularly for African women, and to facilitate access to counselling and antenatal services. These measures can significantly improve pregnancy management and reduce morbidity and complications in pregnant women with HIV.
    HIV Clinical Trials 05/2014; 15(3):104-15. DOI:10.1310/hct1503-104 · 2.14 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: With effective antiretroviral therapy, the risk of mother to child transmission (MTCT) is now under 1%. The 2013 French guidelines emphasize early antiretroviral lifelong antiretroviral therapy. Thus, the current trend for women living with HIV is to take antiretroviral therapy before, during and after their pregnancies. A major issue today is the choice of antiretroviral drugs, to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of fetal exposure. This requires interdisciplinary care. The use of effective therapies permits gradual but profound changes in obstetric practice. When maternal plasma viral load is controlled (<50 copies/ml), obstetrical care can be more similar to standards in HIV-negative women. Prophylactic cesarean section is recommended when the viral load in late pregnancy is above 400 copies/mL. Intravenous zidovudine during labor is recommended only if the last maternal viral load is>400 copies/mL or in case of complications such as preterm delivery, bleeding or chorio-amnionitis during labor. In case of premature rupture of membranes before 34 weeks, a multidisciplinary decision should be made, based on gestational age and control of maternal viral load; if the woman is under antiretroviral therapy and especially if her viral load is undetectable, steroids and antibiotics should be offered and pregnancy can be continued except in case of signs or symptoms of chorio-amnionitis. Breastfeeding is not recommended in women living with HIV in France, as in industrialized countries. Prophylaxis in the newborn is usually zidovudine for 1 month. In case of significant exposure to HIV perinatally, in particular when, maternal viral load is>1000 copies/mL, prophylactic combination therapy is recommended. Monitoring of the child is necessary to determine whether or not it is free of HIV infection and to monitor possible adverse effects of perinatal exposure to antiretroviral drugs.
    Journal de Gynécologie Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction 06/2014; 43(7). DOI:10.1016/j.jgyn.2014.01.006 · 0.62 Impact Factor